partakers ‘impressionist’ expositions 1874-1886

 

 

Impressionism, a historical reconstruction:

8 ‘impressionist’ expositions

1874 – 1886

importance partakers

Importance of the partakers:
Which partakers of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions can be seen as important? Who were just a sort of guests?
The next partakers I see as important:
The partakers that were active in the organisation of the expositions.
The just 6 partakers that joined 6 times or more.
The partakers that showed a total amount of art-works of at least 56 (20 more than the average of 36) and / or more than 50 catalogue numbers.
The next partakers I see as important guests:
The partakers that joined at least 3 times (above the average frequency of 2,5).
The 2 partakers that were honoured with an posthumous exhibition.
The partakers that showed 25 or more art-works in 1 or more expositions.
The partakers that showed a high average of exhibited art-works (5 more than the average of 14,3 art-works).
All the other partakers I see just as guests, who joined the ‘impressionist’ expositions just 1 or 2 times showing a limited amount of art-works.
Note: see the links for overviews of the partakers per year: 1874 + 1876 + 1877 + 1879 + 1880 + 1881 + 1882 + 1886. On these pages you will also find links to info on the artist, exhibited art-works and an account. See also the frequency in which the 56+2hc-1=57 partakers did join the expositions.

The most important partakers:

Camille Pissarro surely was the most important partaker. He was the only partaker who joined all 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. In total he showed 199 art-works, which is far out the most and almost 10% of all the 2053 art-works that were exhibited. This is a high average of  almost 25 art-works per exposition. He showed in total 113 oil paintings (the 2nd largest amount), many gouaches (28) and many engravings (26). He also showed 14 fans, which is 40% of the whole. These 199 art-works were hosted within just 174 catalogue numbers. In the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’ Pissarro had been active as ‘provisional Administrator‘ and in the ‘organising committee’. He also invited several artists. Pissarro was active in organizing 5 ‘impressionist’ expositions (1874 +1877 1879 +1882 +1886).

Edgar Degas joined 7 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. He showed 140 art-works, the second largest amount and 6,8% of the whole. Just 55 were oil paintings. Degas showed the most (31) pastels, 21 art-works done with mixed techniques, several of his 17 exhibited engravings were done in monotype. Degas also showed drawings (10), fans (5) and 1 sculpture. He never showed aquarelles. Degas used the largest variation in techniques and thus can be seen as the most creative partaker. These 140 art-works were hosted within just 119 catalogue numbers. Degas was active in the ‘organising committee’ of the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’. He invited most of the other partakers. He was active organizing 6 ‘impressionist’ expositions (1874  +1876 +1879 +1880 +1881 +1886). This is most often of all the partakers and in that sense he was the most active partaker.

Gustave Caillebotte  joined 5 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions, but in total he showed just a limited amount of 72 art-works. He showed a large number of oil paintings (62). He also showed 10 pastels. These 72 art-works were hosted within 67 catalogue numbers. Caillebotte was active in organizing 4 of the 5 expositions he joined (1876 +1877 +1879 +1882). In that sense you could see him as the third most important partaker, after Pissarro and Degas. At first he also involved in the 8th exposition, but he didn’t partake.

Henri Rouart joined 7 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. He showed a high amount of 104 art-works, 5,1% of the whole. Half (52) were oil paintings. He showed the largest amount of aquarelles (34), 11,3% of the whole. He showed 16 drawings, most in 1879, 14,4% of the whole. In 1874 he showed 2 etchings. He didn’t show pastels. These 104 art-works were hosted in almost the same number of 103 catalogue numbers. Rouart was one of the most important members of the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’. He was part of the inaugural committee and as ‘provisional Administrator’. He also was active in organizing the 1876 exposition and also was involved in 1882 and 1886.

Claude Monet joined just 5 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. But he showed 129 art-works, the 3rd largest number, with a high average of 25,8 art-works per exposition. In 1874 Monet showed 7 pastels, but all the other works were oil paintings. Except for Camille Pissarro, Monet showed far out the most oil paintings at the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. These high amounts make him an important partaker. These 129 art-works were hosted within 121 catalogue numbers. In the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’ Monet had been active as ‘provisional Administrator‘ and in the ‘organising committee’. He invited several other artists. Monet was active in organizing in two ‘impressionist’ expositions (1874 +1877). At first he was also involved in the 8th exposition, but he didn’t partake. After 1879 Monet had left the group and again submitted to the Salon, and exhibited 1 painting in 1880. In this way he abandoned the ideal of independent group exhibitions.

Armand Guillaumin joined 6 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. He also showed a high amount of 104 art-works, 5,1% of the whole; 77 were oil paintings, the 4th largest number. In total he showed 26 pastels, the 2nd largest number. He didn’t show engravings, drawings and just 1 aquarelle. These 104 art-works were hosted within 100 catalogue numbers. He is mentioned as one the most important members of the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’, also belonging to the initial group. He also had an important role in the 8th exposition in 1886 and a smaller role in 1882.

Auguste Renoir joined just 4 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. In total he showed 76 art-works of which 74 oil paintings, the 5th largest amount. He also showed 2 pastels. These 76 art-works were hosted within 71 catalogue numbers. Renoir was one of the 3 members in ’the provisional supervisory board’ of the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’ and also was part of the ‘organising committee’. Later he was also member of the committee of liquidation. Renoir was active in organizing 3 of the 4 expositions he joined (1874 +1876 +1877). He first also was involved in the 8th exposition, but he didn’t partake. After 1877 Renoir had left the group and again submitted to the Salon, with success. In this way he abandoned the ideal of independent group exhibitions.

Berthe Morisot joined 7 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. She showed 107 art-works, the 4th largest amount. About half (55) were oil paintings. She showed in total 28 aquarelles, 18 pastels, 8 drawings and 7 fans. She never showed engravings. Here average per exposition was quite mediocre, namely 15,3 art-works. These 107 art-works were hosted within just 82 catalogue numbers. Morisot was part of the ‘organising committee’ of the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’. She had a role in the 8th exposition in 1886. So, all in all she wasn’t very active. Still, she surely was the most important female partaker.

Alfred Sisley just joined 4 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. He showed 61 art-works, all oil paintings. Just 6 partakers showed more oil paintings. Sisley was member of the initial group and the ‘organising committee’ of the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’. Later he was also member of the committee of liquidation. At first Sisley was involved in the brainstorms for the 8th exposition, but he didn’t partake. For the rest he didn’t seem to be actively involved. After 1877 Sisley had left the group and again submitted to the Salon, without being accepted. In this way he abandoned the ideal of independent group exhibitions.

Paul Gauguin joined 4+1hc=5 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. In 1879 (at least) a sculpture of Gauguin was shown outside the catalogue (hc). In total he showed a more limited amount of about 52 art-works, with a low average of 10,4 per exposition. He showed 45 oil paintings and 1 pastel.  Gauguin also showed 6 of the 17 sculptures. These 52 art-works were hosted within (almost the same) 50 catalogue numbers. He was involved in the organisation of the 7th exposition in 1882.

Mary Cassatt just joined 4 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. She showed a mediocre amount of 48 art-works, with a low average of 12 per exposition. Cassatt showed just 26 oil paintings, 11 pastels, 10 engravings and 1 work done with mixed techniques. These 48 art-works were hosted within (almost the same) 45 catalogue numbers. Cassatt was involved in the 8th exposition.

Charles Tillot joined 6 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. He showed 85 art-works. In 1886 he showed 2 drawings, but all the other art-works were oil paintings, the 3rd largest amount. These 85 art-works were hosted within 73 catalogue numbers. His joining 6 expositions and showing a large amount of art-works, namely oil paintings, make him an important partaker. He didn’t join the expositions in 1874 and 1882. As far as I know wasn’t active in organizing the expositions, which would make him less important. But, Tillot is quite unknown and much neglected. Further research maybe shows a more active involvement.

 

Important partakers:

Partakers showing many art-works:

Jean-Louis Forain joined 4 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. He showed 62 art-works, just 17 oil paintings and 29 aquarelles (the 2nd highest amount). He showed a large variation of techniques, including 6 drawings, 4 fans, 2 pastels, 2 etchings and 2 screens. These 62 art-works were hosted within (almost the same) 59 catalogue numbers. As far as I know he was not active in the expositions.

Victor Vignon exhibited (as one of the just 5 partakers) successively in the last 4 ‘impressionist’ expositions. He showed in total 57 art-works, of which 56 oil paintings. Just 7 other partakers showed more. He also showed 1 drawing in 1882. These 57 art-works were hosted within (almost the same) 55 catalogue numbers. As far as I know he was not active in the expositions.

Jean-François Raffaëlli joined just 2 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions, namely in 1880 and 1881. He showed respectively 46 and 34 art-works and in this sense you can see him as (just) a guest of honour. But he had a large influence on the expositions. Because of him Caillebotte abandoned the 6th exposition in 1881. He was not welcome at the 7th exposition in 1882, which made that Degas and many of his friends neither did partake. In total Raffaëlli showed about 80 art-works. This makes he had the highest average of 40 art-works per exposition. He showed 49 oil paintings, 12 aquarelles, 10 etchings, 5 pastels, just 2 drawings and 2 works done with mixed techniques. These 80 art-works were hosted within 70 catalogue numbers. As far as I know he was not active in the expositions.

Note: Of these most (most) important partakers Caillebotte, Cassatt, Forain, Gauguin, Raffaëlli, Tillot and Vignon did not join the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’ or earlier initiatives for an independent exhibition.

Only joining and active at the start:
There were some artists that were active in the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’ and partly in the preparations of the 1st ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1874. But they only joined in 1874 and some also in 1876. They also showed just a limited amount of art-works. So they are only important partakers in a limited way.

Édouard Béliard only joined the first two ‘impressionist’ expositions in 1874 and 1876. In total he showed 12 art-works, all oil paintings, with a low average of just 6 works per exposition. Béliard was member of ’the provisional supervisory board’ and of the ‘inaugural committee’ (and/or founding committee) of the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’. He also helped Renoir with the financial administration of the 1st ‘impressionist’ exposition.

Pierre-Isidore Bureau only joined the first two ‘impressionist’ expositions in 1874 and 1876. In total he showed 12 art-works, all oil paintings, with a low average of just 6 works per exposition. At the end of 1874 he was part of the committee of liquidation of the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’. Bureau would die 1876/06/08. This early death obstructed him to join the expositions more often.

Auguste Ottin only joined the first ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1874. He showed 10 sculptures. He was the only artist that exhibited sculptures in 1874, so part of the title of the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’ seems to be designated for him. He was treasurer of the ‘Société …’ and member of ’the provisional supervisory board’.

Alfred Meyer only joined the first ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1874. He showed 5 enamel art-works and 1 drawing. So no oil paintings. He was one of the ‘provisional Administrators’ of the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’.

Auguste de Molins only joined the first ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1874. He showed 4 oil paintings. He was one of the ‘provisional Administrators’ of the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs, etc.’.

 

Important guests:

Posthumously honoured:

Adolphe-Félix Cals did partake in all the 4 expositions from 1874-79. In that sense you could say he was dedicated to the ideal of independant group expositions. He was absent in the year he died (1880/10/03). And in 1881 posthumously he was honoured when some art-works were shown outside the catalogue (=hc). All this makes him an important guest. The amount of exhibited art-works was more limited, namely 46, with a low average of 9,2 per exposition. He showed 38 oil paintings and 8 drawings. These 46 art-works were hosted within 41 catalogue numbers.

Ludovic Piette didn’t (want to) join the first 2 expositions in 1874 +1876. In 1877 he did, showing a large amount of 31 art-works, more than 12% of the whole. A year later he died (1878/04/14). The next year he was posthumously honoured when probably 8 gouaches of him were shown outside the catalogue (=hc). In total probably 25 aquarelles were shown, more than 11% of the whole. He also showed 14 oil paintings. All this makes him an important guest.

Joining 4x:

Jean-Baptiste-Léopold Levert joined 4 of the 8 expositions, namely in 1874 +1876 +1877 + 1880. He didn’t in 1879 +1881 (+1882). (I don’t know why, maybe because of an illness). Around 1882 he died. In total he showed just 27 art-works, including 25 oil paintings and at least 2 etchings in 1880.

Federico Zandomeneghi joined 4 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. In total he showed just 31 art-works, with a low average of 7,6 art-works per exposition. He showed just 17 oil paintings. In 1886 he showed 8 pastels, in 1880 he showed 4 fans, in 1881 he showed 1 drawing and 1 panel for a dining room.

joining 3x:
There were 3 partakers who joined 3 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions.

Félix Bracquemond joined the ‘impressionist’ expositions in 1874, 1879 and 1880. He showed maybe 63 works, a large average of 21. In that sense you could see him as an important partaker. But all these works were hosted in just 12 catalogue numbers. He didn’t exhibit oil paintings. He showed 1 drawing in 1874 and in 1880. All the other works were etchings. He showed far out the most engravings, namely 61, about 30% of the whole. The amount of 25 etchings he showed in 1880 is very uncertain.

His wife Marie Bracquemond joined the ‘impressionist’ expositions in 1879, 1880 and 1886.  She showed just 11 art-works, a low average of 3,7 per exposition. It included 6 oil paintings, 2 aquarelles, 2 drawings and a plate of earthenware / faience, see other techniques.

The woman who exhibited in 1876 and 1877 under the pseudonym Jacques François, probably was the same as Comtesse de Rambure who exhibited in 1886 outside the catalogue (=hc). So in total she joined 3 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. In total she showed at least 12 art-works, probably all oil paintings. A low average of just 4 art-works per exposition.

Guests of honour, showing many art-works:
There were some partakers, that joined just 2 or 1 time, but showed high amounts of art-works. In that sense you could see them as guests of honour.

Ludovic Lepic only joined in 1876, showing far out the most (49) art-works. In 1874 he showed 7 art-works, which makes a high average of 28. He showed 22 oil paintings in 1876 (the highest amount) and in total 20 aquarelles and 14 engravings. These 56 art-works were hosted within just 43 catalogue numbers.

Albert Lebourg joined just 2 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. He showed in 1879 30 and in 1880 20 art-works (the same amount as the catalogue numbers), a high average of 25. In total he showed 30 oil paintings and 20 drawings, 18% of the whole.

Alphonse Legros only joined in 1876 showing probably 25 etchings, which was about half of all the engravings exhibited. But they were hosted within just 12 catalogue numbers.

Marcellin Desboutin only joined in 1876 showing 20 art-works, probably 13 engravings and 7 oil paintings. These were hosted within just 13 catalogue numbers.

 

Guests:

partakers that joined 2x:

Léon Ottin only joined the first two ‘impressionist’ expositions in 1874 and 1876. He showed a total of 29 art-works, including 17 oil paintings, 10 aquarelles, 1 litho and 1 curtain, see other techniques. These were hosted within just 21 catalogue numbers.

Paul Cézanne is mentioned in all sources on Impressionism. Still, he joined just 2 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions (in 1874 and 1877). In total he showed 20 art-works, including 17 oil paintings and 3 aquarelles.

Eugène Vidal joined in 1880 + 1881. In 1880 he showed 9 and in 1881 probably 2 oil paintings. A low average of about 5,5 art-works per exposition.

Almost half of the partakers, namely 28, exhibited just 1x!

15 partakers only joined in 1874:
After the 1st ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1874 no less than 15 partakers withdraw of the expositions, almost half of all the partakers in 1874.
Some of them are mentioned above as active partakers: Meyer, de Molins and Auguste Ottin.

The most showed only oil paintings:
Giuseppe (Joseph) de Nittis showed maybe 7 oil paintings, hosted within just 4 catalogue numbers.
Gustave Colin showed 5 oil paintings.
Louis Latouche showed 4 oil paintings.
Stanislas Lépine showed 3 oil paintings.
Émilien Mulot-Durivage showed 2 oil paintings.
Comtesse de Luchaire (hc) at least showed 1 oil paintings.

Others also showed other techniques:
Zacharie Astruc showed 14 art-works, 6 oil paintings and 8 aquarelles (the highest amount in 1874). These 14 art-works were hosted within just 6 catalogue numbers.
Eugène Boudin showed 13 art-works, 3 oil paintings, 4 aquarelles and 6 pastels (1/3 of the whole in 1874). These 13 art-works were hosted within just 6 catalogue numbers.
Édouard Brandon showed maybe 10 art-works, 2 oil paintings, 6 aquarelles and 2 drawings, hosted within just 4 catalogue numbers.
Antoine-Ferdinand Attendu showed about 7 art-works, 4 oil paintings, 3 aquarelles.
Louis Debras showed 4 art-works, 3 oil paintings and 1 drawing.
Léon-Paul-Joseph Robert showed at least 3 art-works, including 1 oil paintings and at least 2 aquarelles.

8 partakers joined just 1x in 1876 +1877 +1879 +1880:
in 1876:
Desboutin and Legros are mentioned above as important guests.
Jean-Baptiste Millet showed 10 art-works: 5 aquarelles, about 3 oil paintings and 2 drawings.
in 1877:
Fréderic Cordey, Franc Lamy and Louis-Alphonse Maureau showed all 4 oil paintings. A small amount.
in 1879:
Henry Somm who showed 2 engravings and about 6 drawings, hosted within just 3 catalogue numbers.
in 1880:
Jean-Marius Raffaëlli who showed 6 etchings hosted within 1 catalogue number.

5 partakers only joined 1x in the last exposition in 1886:
Lucien Pissarro, showed the most (32) art-works, including 14 engravings (2/3 of the whole!), 13 aquarelles and 5 oil paintings. These 32 art-works were hosted in just 10 catalogue numbers.
Paul Signac showed 18 art-works: 15 oil paintings and 3 drawings.
Odilon Redon showed 15 drawings (almost half of the whole!) and probably a fan outside the catalogue (=hc).
Émile Schuffenecker showed 9 art-works: 8 oil paintings and 1 pastel.
George Seurat also showed 9 art-works: 6  oil paintings and 3 drawings.

Sources:
My main sources are Moffett (1986=R2), Berson (1996=R90), Denvir (1993=R5) and Monneret (1978-81=R88).

 

Recommanded citation: “Impressionism: Importance partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions, 1874-1886. Last modified 2024/02/20  https://www.impressionism.nl/partakers-impressionist-expositions-1874-1886/.”