pastels ‘impressionist’ expositions

 

 

Impressionism, a historical reconstruction:

The ‘impressionist’ expositions

1874 – 1886

Exhibited pastels

An overview and slideshow

Which pastels were shown at the ‘impressionist’ expositions?
At the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions held from 1874-1886 in Paris there were about 141 pastels exhibited, which is about 6,9% of the total amount of 2053 exhibited art-works. In total just 14 of the 57 partakers showed pastels. Degas (31x, namely in 1886) and Guillaumin (26x, namely in 1882) showed the most pastels. Degas and Morisot showed most often pastels, namely at 6 of the 8 expositions. In 1886 the most pastels were exhibited, namely 39. At the bottom of this page you will find an overview and an account per year.
Note: If you double click on the first picture and then click on full screen, you can create a slideshow. On a smartphone or laptop you can also zoom in. Enjoy!

 

Overview number of exhibited pastels 1874 – 1886:
Here below you will find an overview of the number of pastels that were exhibited at the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions from 1874-1886. In total about 141 pastels were exhibited, which is about 6,9% of the total amount of 2053 exhibited art-works. In total just 14 of the 57 partakers showed pastels. Degas and Morisot showed most often pastels, namely at 6 of the 8 expositions. In 1886 the most pastels were exhibited, namely 39, 13% of the whole. In 1881 23 pastels were shown, 12,3% of the whole. In 1877 only Morisot showed 3 pastels, just 1,2% of the whole. In 1876 5 pastels were shown, just 1,7% of the whole.
Degas (31x, namely in 1886) and Guillaumin (26x, namely in 1882) showed the most pastels. Others would regularly show smaller amounts: Morisot (15x), Camille Pissarro (13x, namely in 1886),  Cassatt (11x, namely in 1881) and Caillebotte (10x, namely in 1879). In 1874 Boudin (6x) and Monet (7x) showed several pastels and in 1886 Zandomeneghi (8x).

overview number of pastels exhibited 1874 - 1886

 

Account:
In 1874 the following 5 partakers exhibited pastels: Boudin 6x (catalogue no.20+21); Degas 1x (no.61); Monet 7x (nos.99-102); Morisot 3x (no.108+109+hc); Renoir 1x (no.146). So in total there were probably 18 pastels exhibited, about 8% of the total amount of 225 art-works.
Note: for no.61 (Degas) I render a pastel to compare; many other suggestions are (very) uncertain.

In 1876 the following 3 partakers exhibited pastels: Degas 1x (catalogue no.42); Morisot showed 3 ‘dessins au pastel’ (no.182); Renoir 1 (no.226). So in total there were probably 5 pastels exhibited, just about 1,7% of the total amount of 298 art-works.
Note: for no. 226 (Renoir) I render a pastel to compare; the sugggestions for no.182 (Morisot) are very uncertain.

In 1877 only Morisot showed pastels, at least 2 (catalogue no.125+126), but probably a third outside the catalogue (=hc).So in total there were just 3 pastels exhibited, just about 1,2% of the total amount of 249 art-works.
Note: for no.126 I have only a black and white picture, see. Degas showed several pastels on monotype, but I count them as mixed techniques.

In 1879 the following 4 partakers exhibited pastels: Caillebotte 6x (catalogue nos.26-31); Cassatt 3x (nos.53-55); Pissarro 4x (nos.201-204). The catalogue mentions the following 6 works of  Degas were pastels: no. 60 + 68 +70 +71 +73 +74, but no.60 +70 were also done ‘détrempe’ and no.73 also was done with gouache, so I render them as mixed technique. No.65 (détrempe) was exchanged with hc1, no.65 ending up as a pastel. Maybe hc2 also was a pastel. So in total Degas probably exhibited probably 5 pure pastels. So in total there were 18 pastels exhibited, about 6,6% of the total amount of 272 art-works.
Note: for no.30 (Caillebotte) I render a mixed pastel / gouache to compare; the quite certain suggestions for no.54+55 (Cassat) are a mix of pastel and metallic paint (no.54) and pastel + gouache (no.55).

In 1880 the following 4 partakers exhibited pastels: Caillebotte 3x (catalogue no.14-16); Guillaumin 4x (nos.81-84); Jean-François Raffaëlli 3x (no.153+159+165); the catalogue indicated that Degas showed 3 pastels (nos.38+39+40); but probably no.41 also was a pastel and (1 or) 2 of the drawings (no.43) and hc3; so maybe Degas exhibited 7 pastels. So in total there were probably 17 pastels exhibited, about 5,5% of the total amount of 309 art-works. Note: for no.16 (Caillebotte) I render just a black and white picture; for no.84 (Guillaumin) I render to compare a later pastel; for no.159+165 (Jean-François Raffaëlli) I render an oil painting to compare.

In 1881 the following 7 partakers exhibited pastels: Cassatt 7x (catalogue nos.5-11); Forain 1x (no.25); Guillaumin 5x (nos.51-55); Morisot showed at least 2 pastels (no.60+61), but probably no.59 also was a pastel and probably she also showed a pastel outside the catalogue (=hc), so in total 4 (maybe no.62 also was a pastel, but because of the uncertainty I won’t count it as such); Pissarro 2x (no.89+90); Raffaëlli probably 2x (no.103+107?). Maybe the hc1 work of Degas was a pastel, but the suggestion is uncertain,so I will count it as an oil painting; probably the numbers 17+18 were pastels, so probably Deas showed 2 pastels. So in total there were probably 23 pastels exhibited, about 12,3% of the total amount of 187 art-works.
Note: most suggestions for Cassatt are (very) uncertain, for no.10 I have no suggestion at all; for no.17 (Degas) I have only a black and white picture; for no.51 (Guillaumin) I render a pastel to compare, for no.53 I couldn’t find a suggestion at all; for no.60 (Morisot) I have only a black and white picture; to compare I render a for no.103 (Raffaëlli) a coloured etch and for no.107 an oil painting.

In 1882 the following 4 partakers exhibited pastels: Caillebotte 1x (catalogue no.14); Gauguin 1x (no.28); Guillaumin 13x (nos.44-56); Morisot 3x (nos.98-100). So in total there were probably 18 pastels exhibited, about 8,5% of the total amount of 212 art-works.
Note: for no. 14 (Caillebotte) I render to compare an oil painting; for no. 28 (Gauguin) I only have a black and white picture; many suggestions for Guillaumin are (very) uncertain, for no. 44 +45 +52 I render later pastels to compare; the suggestions for Morisot also are (very) uncertain, for no.98 I have only a black and white picture.

In 1886 the following 8 partakers exhibited pastels: Cassatt 1x (catalogue no.13); Degas 15x! (nos.14-28; note: maybe Degas exhibited just 10 pastels); probably no.33 of Forain was a pastel though not indicated in the catalogue; Guillaumin 4x (nos.78-81); maybe Morisot exhibited pastels though this was not indicated in the catalogue, probably 86 + 91 (and maybe 90, but this one I won’t count); Camille Pissarro 7x (no.107+108); Schuffenecker 1x (no.174); Zandomeneghi 8x (nos.239-246). So in total there were 39 pastels exhibited, about 13% of the total amount of 301 art-works.
Note: for no.80 (Guillaumin) I render a later pastel, for no.81 I have no suggestion at all; for no.102-2 (Pissarro) I render to compare an oil painting; for no.244 (Zandomeneghi) I have only a black and white picture, for the nos. 239 +240 +241 +242 +243 +246 I render other pastels to compare and for no.245 an oil painting.

So, in total there have been 18 +5 +3 +18 +17 +23 +18 +39= 141 art-works exhibited made with mixed techniques / media, this is about 6,9% of the total amount of 2053 exhibited art-works. I render here above 135 suggestions.

 

Sources:
My main sources are the catalogues of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions as rendered by Moffett (1986=R2), Berson (1996=R90I) and the Salon database (iR1). See the link for other general References (=Rx) and to the internet references (=iRx). See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.

 

Recommanded citation: “Impressionism: Overview of the exhibited pastels at the ‘impressionist’ expositions (1874-1886). Last modified 2024/02/11. https://www.impressionism.nl/pastels-impressionist-expositions/

 

Note: additional and better suggestions will be added in the future.