Impressionism: a historical reconstruction
On this page you will find an explanation of the notifications in the subscriptions of the pictures
Every picture on this website has a subscription.
- The name of the artist
Sometimes I only use the last name.
When it is not fully sure it was made by the artist I add ‘(?)’.
- With lesser known artists it is sometimes not sure if it really is made by the artist. Sometimes the name is followed by information about the signature. S- = there is no signature. Sbl = the signature is found at the bottom of the painting at the left. Sbr = bottom right. Stl = top left. Str = top right.
- Then you will find the year in which the painting was made
(ca = approximately)
18xx or 18?? = the date is unknown, but probably in the 19th century.
- Then, if known, you will find the number of the catalogue raisonné on the artist, noted for example as: CR237.
Later on, I will refer to the source, for example: R102,no237.
Of the lesser known artists I make a Thematical Overview of Pictures, which I sometimes number, for example: TOP2.3.
- Then you will find the title in English and/or French.
(as indicated by the museum, the Catalogue Raisonné or other sources)
Sometimes between brackets you will find an alternative title.
- Info on the used technique.
When the painting is made with oil paint (on canvas) I don’t render info, which is mostly. When it is an oil painting made on wood or board I (mostly) add this.
When the painting is a watercolour, I render ‘wc’; sometimes this includes a gouache, often I notice ‘gouache’ explicitly.
When the painting is a pastel I render ‘pastel’.
When it is a sort of drawing I render ‘drawing’ or ‘dr’; sometimes I add ‘pencil’ or ‘chalk’.
When it is a sort of engraving I render ‘etch’. Sometimes added with the specific technique: ‘ps’ = pointe sèche or dry-point. Sometimes added with the state of the etch.
When it is a litho I render ‘litho’.
When there are several techniques used I render ‘mixed’.
For more info about the used technique look in the sources I refer to.
- Then you will find (round off) the measures in centimeters
(divide with 2,54 and you will have the inches)
I round off to whole centimeters. 73,5 = 74; 73,4 = 73. Sources mostly give a slight variation in measures. I render an average and/or the most appreciated. When you are interested in the exact measures look in the sources I used, especially of the musea or auction sites.
When the measures or not known I render ‘xx’ or ‘?cm’
- Then you will find the location where you can find the painting now:
- The musea are shortly indicated with Orsay or MFA Boston
For more information about the museum look at the overview of the most important -/-musea.
- When the work is in a private collection it is mentioned as ‘private’
Sometimes with the name of (the owner of) the collection is added
Sometimes with the country or place where the private collection is found, is added.
But mostly I leave out this information. You may find it in the sources indicated.
- When the work has been auctioned I will render for example: A2003/12/13, which means the picture has been auctioned 13 December 2003. More information you can find in the sources I used. When the auction date is not known, I render ‘Axx’ or ‘A??’.
Mostly afterwards the painting disappears in a private collection, not to be admired by the common people.
- When the location is not known I render ‘xx’ or ‘??’.
- At last you will find the most important sources of the painting I used.
The sources are indicated as such: The general references (mostly books) are indicated like ‘R2’. Internet pages are indicated as ‘iR3’. Additional references are found at the bottom of the main page of the artist and are indicated as ‘aR4’.
I start with the source that provided the picture I used (and revised). The most used sources with large databases of pictures are www.the-athenaeum.org (=iR2; not existing anymore), www.commons.wikimedia.com (iR6), www.mutualart.com (=iR11), www.artnet.com (=iR13), ‘Joconde‘ (=iR23) and images.google.com (=iR10).
I don’t render the name of the one that made the photo. Please look at the first source mentioned for this information. I acknowledge that it is an art to make a good photo and therefor I would like to honour the makers. But it would cost to much space on the pages and the readability would be lessened. I also like to emphasize that the paintings are public domain and that I have revised (almost) all the pictures.
When I have made the photo myself I indicate it as ‘BVC’ of ‘HW’. You may use it without reference.
- I allmost always have revised the picture I used.
Often I brighten up the colours, assuming that through the years the colours have been paled out.
Sometimes the source picture has screaming colours which don’t look original. Then I make the colours less screaming. I also compare several sources to estimate what is an appropriate reproduction of the painting.
Frames I mostly remove.
- When you click on a picture it will be rendered in a full page without the frame of the website. Than you can click back and forth to see the others pictures within that gallery. (Note: This hasn’t been realised on all pages yet.)
Reverences to the expositions where the painting was exhibited:
When a work was (probably) exhibited at one of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions (or at the Salon or another exhibition) you will find the references mentioned here below at the beginning, followed by the title given in the catalogue (in French) and followed by an indication of how certain this picture represents the picture that was exhibited. Sometimes all this information is rendered at the end of the subscription.
The messure of certainty is indicated with now / =!; probably / =!?; option 1/2; perhaps / maybe / =?, uncertain / =??; very uncertain / =???; compare with a work that resembles it = compare.
- (3IE-)1877-186 stands for the third ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1877 with the catalogue number 186
Note: the ‘3IE-‘ is an extension I later added, so not all pictures have this.
- (1IE-)1874-165+hc indicates that the work was not inserted in the catalogue of the first ‘impressionist’ exposition of 1874 but belonged (in this example) to Sisley, who’s latest number in the catalogue is 165
(hc = hors catalogue = outside the catalogue)
- (1IE-)1874-hc indicates that not only the work but also the artist was not inserted in the catalogue (of 1874)
- S1879-2527 stands for the 1879 exhibition of the Paris Salon with the catalogue number 2527
- S1863-A means that the painting was accepted at the Paris Salon of 1863 but the catalogue number is unknown
- S1863-R indicates that the submitted painting was refused by the jury of the Paris Salon in 1863
- SdR1863-363 stands for the Salon-des-Refuses of 1863 with the catalogue number 363
- SdR1863-hc indicates that the picture was exhibited at the Salon-des-Refuses of 1863, but was not inserted in the catalogue
- SdAF-1883-13 indicates that the picture was exhibited at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français of 1883 with the catalogue number 13.
- SNBA-1892-941 indicates that the picture was (probably) exhibited at the Société National des Beaux-Arts in 1892 with the catalogue number 941
- XX-1885-3 indicates that the picture was exhibited at the exhibition of Les Vinght / Les XX in Brussels in 1885 with the catalogue number 3.
- SdI-1884-10: indicates that the picture was exhibited at the Salon des Indépendents in 1884 with the catalogue number 10.
- SdA-1904-11: indicates that the picture was exhibited at the Salon d’Automne in 1904 with the catalogue number 11.
- HD1875-22: indicates that the picture was auctioned at Hôtel Drouot in Paris in 1875 with the catalogue number 22.
- DR1885-18: indicates that the picture was exhibited by Durand-Ruel in 1885 with the catalogue number 18.
- DRNY-1886-33: indicates that the picture was exhibited by Durand-Ruel in New York in 1884 with the catalogue number 33.
- sometimes I render other characters before a year, this is than explained on the concerning page.
Recommanded citation: “The subscription of the pictures on www.impressionism.nl.” Last modified 2021/08/19. https://www.impressionism.nl/subscription-paintings/.