Impressionism, the partakers of the expositions:
From Impressionism to Symbolism
Was Paul Gauguin an Impressionist?
Paul Gauguin first joined the ‘impressionist’ expositions in 1879 and he would join every following exposition. He had an active role in the discussions preceeding the 7th exposition in 1882 and probably also had a role in organising the 6th exposition in 1881. Since 1871 Gauguin had a close friendship with Schuffenecker. Gauguin had close contacts with Pissarro, Cézanne and Guillaumin. Later also with Seurat, Signac, Félix and Marie Bracquemond and Degas. In this sense, you could say that, with a delay, he was clearly part of the ‘impressionist’ art-mouvement.
Paul Gauguin started painting in the style of the Barbizon painters, but influenced by Pissarro Gauguin clearly used elements of the impressionist painting style. Later on (most clearly 1888 onwards) he left behind painting from direct observation and started to paint from memory in order to paint the essence of things and so developed towards a Symbolist painting style. Gauguin was a source of inspiration for Les Nabis and other painters and is seen as one of the most important Post-Impressionists.
Gauguin joined the ‘impressionist’ expositions in 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882 and 1886:
Gauguin joined the 4th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1879 within being mentioned in the catalogue (=hc). He showed 1 sculpture. (R90I,p219;R2,p271;R90II,p113). He reacted at the invitation of Pissarro and Degas in a letter of 1879/04/03. (R2,p248+263;R1,p423+436).
At the 5th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1880 Gauguin showed 8 works, including 1 sculpture (catalogue numbers 55-62) (R2,p311;R36,p14;R49). Gauguin was hardly reviewed or criticised as a clumsy recruit under the flag of Pissarro (R37,p41).
At the 6th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1881 Gauguin showed 10 works, including 2 sculptures (catalogue numbers 30-39) (R2,p354;R36,p14;R49). Gauguin was one of the organisers (R37,p43).
At the 7th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1882 Gauguin showed 13 works, including 1 sculpture (catalogue numbers 18-30) (R2,p394;R36,p14;R49). Monet and Renoir found him agressive, dictatorial and arrogant (R37,p44).
At the 8th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1886 Gauguin showed 19+1=20 works, including 1 sculpture (catalogue numbers 42-60+hc) (R2,p444/5;R49). Gauguin already wanted to start organising the 8th exposition in Autumn 1883 (iR37,p45). Félix Bracquemond buys a work of Gauguin (R49).
See link for an account.
Gauguin at other exhibitions:
Before Gauguin exhibited with the Impressionists he exhibited in 1876 a landscape at the Salon made in 1875 in Viroflay (R36,p13;iR1;R37,p29), a work that is now disappeared (R181,no31). That was the only work he exhibited at the Salon (iR1). He also made some larger works, that may have been intended to submit at the Salon (R181,no13+20). Were some of his works rejected?
After the last exhibition with the ‘impressionists’ in 1886, Gauguin would join with several other exhibitions. November 1888 Theo van Gogh organised the first solo-exhibition of Gauguin at the Boussod & Valadon Gallery, without success (R181;R36,p14;R49). February 1889 Gauguin exhibited at the 6th exhibition of ‘Les XX‘ in Brussels (R49;R3;R181). 1889/06/08 Gauguin and/or Schuffenecker organised an exhibition of ‘Peinture du groupe impressionniste et synthétiste’ at Café Volpini; he himself showed 17 works (R5,p169;R36,p81;R49;R3;R181;R54,p98;R49,p92;R88II,p88). 1889: co-organizer of an exhibition in Copenhagen of French and Nordic Impressionists (R49). 1891/02/23: an auction sale of 30 paintings at Hôtel Drouot; the revenue amounted to 9860 francs (R36,p81;R49;R181). Untill two days before this sale, there had been an exhibition at Boussod et Valadon (R181). 1891: exhibited at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. (iR1) and exhibited with ‘Les XX’ in Brussels (R49). 1893/11: stimulated by Durand-Ruel Gauguin exhibited recent works (R49). Gauguin joined some exhibitions of Impressionists and Symbolists; maybe the 2nd in 1893 (sic) (R49), the 3rd (R181,no306) and the 6th (iR4). 1894: exhibit with ‘La libre esthétique’ in Brussels (R49). 1895/02/18: second auction sale of 45 paintings and 25 drawings; the revenues are just 2986 francs (R36,p81;R49). 1897: works of Gauguin are exhibited at La Libre Esthétique‘ in Brussels (R49). 1898: exhibition at Vollard with works of Gauguin (R49). 1900: works of Gauguin, including 10 large Monotypes are exhibited at the Exposition Universelle (R49). 1903/07: posthumous auction in Atuana, Tahiti (R36,p82). 1903/09/02: posthumous auction in Papeete, Tahiti (R36,p82). 1903/10/31: small retrospective exhibition at the Salon d’Automne with 8 works (R239). 1903: retrospective with 50 paintings at Vollard (R49). 1904: works of Gauguin were exhibited at the Exposition des peintres impressionnistes at La Libre Esthétique in Brussels (R181,no380). 1906: retrospective exhibition at the Salon d’Automne with 227 works (R239;R36,p82;R49;R181).
Paul Gauguin as an artist; the early years; 1871-86:
It is unclear when Gauguin began to paint. His first known picture dates from Januar 1873 (R181,p3). Some sources suggests that he painted in 1871 with Marguérite Arosa in Saint-Cloud (R36,p13). Other sources mention that Gauguin started painting in the Summer of 1873 (with Schuffenecker) and that he painted in the style of Corot (R37,p29;R49) and Daubigny (R181,p3). Around 1875 he was also inspired by Boudin and Jongkind (R181,p3). His development is hard to discern, because he hardly dated his early works and moved rapidly between styles, from a liberated brushwork to a smoother manner (R181,p3+4). In his early years Gauguin was an amateur painter. In his daily life he worked at the stock brokerage firm of Bertin, starting in 1871 (R36,p13;R37,p357/8;R49). Since 1877 he worked elswhere as a stock broker’s clerk (R181,p578-581;R37). Some sources say that Gauguin lost his work Januari 1883 and than became a fulltime artist (R36,p14;R49); other sources suggest this was Januari 1884 (R181,p589). Since than Gauguin often suffered poverty and had some temporary jobs (R181,p589vv).
Some sources mention that he met Emile Schuffenecker in 1871 at his work for Bertin (R36,p13); other sources mention he met Schuffenecker in 1872 (R181,p574). Some sources mention that in June 1874 Gauguin visited the free Academy of Colarossi (R36,p13;R49) and that he met Pissarro there (R36,p13); other sources mention that they met at the shop of Latouche (R37,p358); other sources that Schuffenecker introduced Gauguin to Pissarro in 1879 (R49); others that he met Pissarro at the Arosa family (R181,p51+580); but the first letter of Gauguin to Pissarro dates from 1879/04/03 and probably it was only than that they became close (R181,p580). Another source mentions that the Académie Colarossi did not open till 1881 and that a remark of Gauguin his wife Mette that he did so shortly after there marriage (1873/11/22) is not correct (R181,p577).
In 1876 Gauguin started to collect art-works of Boudin, Cassatt, Cézanne, Forain, Guillaumin, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley and also Jongkind and Manet (R1,p410;R49), but other sources mention that he started or extended to buy impressionist works in 1879 (R36,p13;R181,p581) and in 1881 he started to buy from Durand-Ruel till 1883/12/29 (R181,p584+590). 1884 onwards, having lost his job, Gauguin had to sell his purchases (R181,p590vv).
In 1877 Gauguin learned sculpturing from his neighbours Jules-Ernest Bouillot and Jean-Paul Aubé (R181,p579;R36,p13;R37,p29). 1879/07 Gauguin met other ‘impressionists’ at Café Nouvelle-Athènes; here he met Guillaumin (or through Pissarro) (R181,p580+582). Between 1879 and 1883 Gauguin regularly painted with Pissarro, who influenced his painting style (R181,p51). 1879/09/20: painted with Pissarro in Pontoise (R181,p581;R37,p41;R3). 1881/Summer: spends a holiday in Pontoise with Pissarro, Guillaumin and Cézanne (R49;R36,p14;R3;R181,p584+97), and also later till December 1882 he visits Pissarro on Sundays (R181,p52+587). Gauguin namely is influenced by Cézanne, starts to experiment (with deformed spaces) and systematicly used sets of parallel brushstrokes (R181,p52/3). 1883/March+June: worked with Pissarro in Osny (R49;R181,no99+p588). In 1886 Gauguin experimented with Neo-Impressionism (R181,p239), stimulated by Seurat, Signac and Pissarro. Late November 1886 there were hostilities between Gauguin and Guillaumin on the one hand and Pissarro, Seurat and Signac on the other hand (R181,p602).
The larger part of 1884 Gauguin lived with his family in Rouen, where he made many paintings (R181,p131). In November he moved with his family to Copenhagen, where his mother-in-law lived and where he worked as a representative of the firm Dillies (R181,p189+593). In these months he corresponded with Schuffenecker, Pissarro and Guillaumin (R37,p47). In June 1885 he came back with his son Clovis in Paris (R181,p248). That summer he also spent time in Dieppe (and maybe England) (R36,p14;R49;R181,p213/4). In 1886 Gauguin learned the art of ceramics of Ernest Chaplet (or: Champlet; Bracquemond had introduced him (R36,p14;R49;R181,p600). In the Spring of 1886 Gauguin he send his son Clovis to a boarding school, which he couldn’t pay and didn’t dare to visit. In the Spring of 1887 he sent Clovis back to his mother in Copenhagen (R181,no208+600-604).
Paul Gauguin, first stay at Pont-Aven in 1886:
In 1886 Paul Gauguin stayed in Pont-Aven from mid-July to mid-October at the Gloanec inn. Pont-Aven was a colony of artists and in 1886 there were around a hundred of them. Gauguin was being hailed as the leading artistic radical of the colony (R181,p267/8). In Pont-Aven Gauguin would meet Émile Bernard, but they didn’t speak (R181,p602;R36,p14;R40) and Charles Laval, who saw Gauguin as his master (iR4;R181II,p307/8). Schuffenecker just shortly was present (R181,p602). These meetings didn’t gave a breakthrough in the development of Synthetism↓, this came two years later.
1886/10/14 Gauguin would return to Paris (R181,p299). This winter of 1886-97 Gauguin seemed to have given up painting from nature, did several complex large-scale figure paintings and was inspired by Degas (R181,p299). Already in the early 1880s Gauguin had a desire to create more complex compositions, as he wrote to Pissarro in 1881 ‘An open-air note can be a pretty thing here and there but doesn’t by itself constitute a picture’ (R181,p291).
Paul Gauguin at Martinique, 1887:
1887/04/10 Gauguin left with Charles Laval for Panama (R36,p14;R49,p92;R181,p604) ’to live like a savage’ as he wrote to Mette, his wife (R181,p317). They got disappointed and around the 11th of June they arrive in Martinique (R181,p317;R36). In 1919 Gauguin would write about his time in Martinique ‘There alone have I feld truly myself’ (R181II,p321). In 1904 Charles Morice declared Gauguin’s Martinican pictures ‘Synthetic↓’, others only see a foreshadow of Synthetism↓ that Gauguin would develop the next year in 1888 (R181,p319). Several works depicting Martinique were first attributed to Gauguin,but later were thought to be (probably) made by Laval (iR4).
In November 1887 Gauguin returned to Paris and spent the winter with his friend Schuffenecker (R181,p353+607). Laval would return some months later (R181,p608). Late November or early December Gauguin would meet Theo and Vincent van Gogh at an exhibition at the Grand Bouillon restaurant (R181,p607), others claim this was one year before (1886/11/13) (R36,p14;R49). In December Theo van Gogh organised a small exhibition with works of Gauguin, Pissarro and Guillaumin (R181,p608).
Gauguin; second stay in Pont-Aven, 1888; Synthetism:
1888/01/26 Gauguin left again for Pont-Aven and he would stay again at the auberge Gloanec (R181,p608;R36,p14;R49). 1888/02/20 he wrote to Schuffenecker ‘I love Brittany: the savage and the primitive are here.’ (R181II,p365). Around 1888/08/13 Émile Bernard arrived in Pont-Aven and he and Gauguin spent all their time together. Meanwhile they had an intense correspondence with Vincent van Gogh (R181,p429-431;R36,p14). In this exchange of ideas Emile Bernard and Gauguin developed the ‘synthetic symbolism’, in short Synthetism (R36,p14;R49;R181,p613). They absorbed the principles of Cloisonnism and gave it a much deeper significance (R181II,p465). They year before Cloisonnism had been developed by Anquetin, who had influenced Bernard (R88I,p49;R268) or as Bernard claims ‘each of us seperately’ developed this style (R181,p604). Since this late summer 1888 Gauguin used religious themes in his paintings and uttered religious believes in his letters (R181II,p469).
Soon afterwards artists and art-critics declared Gauguin ’the inventor of the new style’ (Fénénon, 1889) and the ‘head of the new school’ (Aurier, 1891) (R181II,p469+438). Les Nabis saw Gauguin as their great inspirator. In 1900 Maurice Denis wrote ‘Gauguin freed us from our chains, from the idea of copying nature’ (R49,p37). Émile Bernard protested this view (R49,p38). Art-historian have different opionions about this (R49,p38). Some state that in fact Bernard mostly inspired Gauguin (R181II,p458). Others mention that Gauguin wrote around 1883/84 his first ‘notes synthétiques’, in which he rejects the impressionist analyses of light and atmosphere; but, it would take some time before he would paint according his ideas (R37,p47). Some refer to a letter to Schuffenecker dated 1885/01/14 in which Gauguin emphasized ‘intuition’ and wrote about the meaning of lines and colour ‘The straight line conveys the infinite, the curved line delimits creation….’ and ‘There are noble, and in addition everyday tones, calm, comforting and in addition, because of their boldness, stimulating harmonies.’ (R36,p132). Gauguin also wrote (maybe a bit later 1885/05/24) ‘Lines and colours not only have the power to reflect what we see, the reality as nature apparently presents it to us, but they also possess an emotional power that communicates a mood to the viewer.’ (R49,p39). Or as Huyghe puts it ‘From now on, the drawing has not so much to reflect the reality as to convey the message that the art-work is supposed to bring.’ And as Gauguin wrote (1885/05/24) ‘The stroke is a means to emphasize the Idea.’ (R49,p40). Gauguin wrote around 1888/07/24, so before Bernard arrived, about his Young wrestlers that he depicted the green gras ‘without modulation like Japanese prints’ (R181,no298). Huyghe states that with al these words Gauguin ‘already outlined the program of Symbolism’ (R49,p39). Some state that Bernard probably laid the foundations for certain technical procedures, but it was only the genius Gauguin who created symbolist masterpieces (R74,p293;R88I,p48-50). Still, in June 1899 in a letter to Denis, Gauguin called Bernard his ’teacher’ (R36,p135).
Paul Gauguin with Vincent van Gogh in Arles:
1888/02/20 Vincent van Gogh arrived in Arles, in May he had moved 1888/09/16 to the ‘yellow house‘ (R181,p609). He corresponded with Gauguin, Bernard, Guillaumin and others (R181,p429-431+609vv). With Guillaumin Van Gogh shared the idea of a studio in the tradition of mediaval workshops (R6,p213;R1,p550;R39,p74;R21;iR3). At the end of May he invites Gauguin to join him in Arles (R181,p610). At the end of 1888 Paul Gauguin spent 9 weeks together with Vincent van Gogh from the 23th of October till Christmas (R181,p501;R36,p14;R49). They experimented, influenced each other, rendered the same motives and both produced a large sum of art-works (R181,p501/2). There are few works of Gauguin from this period that do not in some way refer to works of Van Gogh and his use of pure colour elevated (R181,p502). Gauguin hardly made Symbolist works (R181,p503). On the other hand it was Gauguin, who stimulated Van Gogh to work from memory, something he would soon again abandon (R181,p512). But Gauguin would write to Bernard ‘Between Vincent and me there are in general few similarities… He is a Romantic and I tend towards primitivism.’ (R36,p132). In December tensions did grow between Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh, who cut of a piece of his ear at the 23th. A few days later Gauguin left Arles and went to stay at Schuffenecker, 29, Rue Boulard in Paris. (R181,p617/6)
Gauguin at Tahiti:
In 1889 + 1890 Gauguin dwelled alternately in Paris, Pont-Aven and Pouldu (R36,p14+81;R49,p92). June 1889 he organised an exhibition at Café Volpini (iR19;R36,p81;R49,p92). Regular guest at Café Voltaire, where Symbolist artists came together (R49,p92). 1891/02 portrayed Redon (R36,p81). The facination for primitive culture did him leave France 1891/04/04 for Tahiti (R36,p81;R49,p92). To gather money there had been an auction sale at Hôtel Drouot 1891/02/23, proceding by an exhibition at Boussod et Valadon (R181;R36,p81). He gets seriously ill in Tahiti and returns in Marseille 1893/08/03 and later returns to Paris (R36,p81;R49,p92). At the end of 1893 there is an exhibition at Durand-Ruel of which Les Nabis are impressed (R49,p92;R36,p81). January 1894 he went for the last time to Copenhagen to see his wife and children (R49,p92). She wrote to Schuffenecker ‘He came back as he left confused in the most monstrously brutal egoism. (…) He only thinks of himself and his own well-being and he remains in contemplative admiration of his own magnificence.’ (R54,p115). In the Spring of 1894 Gauguin travels to Pont-Aven, Pouldu and Concarneau (R36,p81). 1895/02/18 there is a second auction sale held at Hôtel Drouot, which is not so successfull (R36,p81;R49,p62). 1895/07/03 Gauguin leaves France again for Tahiti (R36,p81). He moved several times, suffered several illnesses and died 1903/05/08 (R36,p81;R49,p92).
Gauguin painted local people, the ‘primitive’ and in his eyes pure life. He used delineated, unmixed and flat areas of colour, thus rendering a two-dimensional effect. He used symbolic features and often depicted idols. He tryed to render a serene beauty, creating a harmonic en decorative effect. The figures often look quite static. Several paintings have an unreal and magical effect. (R200,p34-61). Around 1897 he made his most important painting Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going?’↓ It is a large painting, like a sort of frieze, inspired by a dream, depicting diverent aspects of human existence. (R200,p48vv;R49,p79;M22)
Eugène-Henri-Paul Gauguin, a short biography:
- There are no sources of Gauguin his youth accept his own memoires written at the end of his live; this makes all the data until 1873 unreliable (R37,p23)
- 1848/06/07: Eugène-Henri-Paul Gauguin was born at 52 (now: 56), Rue Notre-Dame de Lorette in Paris (R36,p13;R49)
- 1849/08/08: the family moved to Lima, Peru, his mother had Peruvian blood (R37,p24); other sources mention they left in October (R36,p13) or even in 1851 (R49).
- 1849/10/30: his father died (R36,p13)
- 1855: Paul, his mother and his sister Marie Marceline (1846-?) moved to France to Orléans (R36,p13;R49)
- 1861: his mother moved to Paris; Paul stays at a seminary in Orléans (R37,p29); other sources mention this was in 1859 (R49).
- 1865/12/07: Paul started to work on a trading ship (R36,p13;R37,p29;R49)
- 1867/07/07: his mother died in Saint-Cloud; Gustave Arosa became the legal guardian of the 19 years old Paul (R36,p13;R37,p29;R49)
- 1868/02 – 71/04: military service (R49;R36,p13;R37,p29)
- 1871/04/25: Gauguin rents a house at 15, Rue la Bruyère, Paris (R36,p13;R181,p576)
- 1871-77: Gauguin worked at the stock brokerage firm of Bertin; his colleague is Emile Schuffenecker, with whom he became friends (R36,p13;R37,p357/8;R49)
- 1872: Gauguin had received a large inheritance of his uncle (R37,p29;R49)
- 1873/Spring: Gauguin met Mette-Sophie Gad, a Danish working as governess in Paris (R36,p13); another source mentions this was around 1872/12/22 (R181,p574).
- 1873/11/22: Paul and Mette got married (R36,p13;R37,p29;R49;R181,p576) and went to live 28, place Saint-Georges (R181,p577).
- 1874/08/31: his son Emile is born (R36,p13;R37,p29/R49;R181,p577)
- 1875: the family had moved to 54, Rue de Chaillot, Paris (nowadays no. 30) (R181,p4+578) at walking distance from the Seine (iR9)
- Gauguin stopped working at Bertin around late 1876 or early 1877 (R181,p578)
- 1877/06/01: the family moved to 1, impasse Frémin on the corner of 74, Rue des Fourneaux; now corner 1, cité Falguière and 74, Rue Falguère, in the 15th arrondissement, also called Vaugirard (R181,p579+4;iR9;R36,p13).
- 1877/12/24: his daughter Aline was born (R36,p13;R37,p29;R49;R181,p580)
- 1879/05/10: his son Clovis was born (R181,p580;R49); another source mentions this was the 8th (R36,p14).
- 1879/07: worked with the banker Bourdon (R37,p357;R181,p580); note: in the years 1878+79+80 he was noted as a ‘stock broker’s clerk’ (R181,p581).
- 1880: Gauguin worked at a financiel agency of Thomereau (R181,p582;R36,p357).
- 1880/early autumn: the family moved to 8, Rue Carcel, Vaugirard, Paris, a large house with a studio, opposite the church of Saint-Lambert (R181,p582;R49); some sources mention this was in 1879 (R36,p14)
- 1881/04/12: his son Jean-René is born (R49;R36,p14;R181,p584)
- 1883/12/06: his son Paul Rollon (Pola) is born (R181,p590;R36,p14)
- 1884/01/04: financial problems; the family moved to 5, impasse Malherne, now 5, impasse Gauguin, Rouen (R181,p590+131;R36,p14)
- 1884/November: the family moved to 105, Gammel Kongevej, Copenhagen (R181,p131+593;R36,p14)
- 1884/Autumn – 1885/06: Gauguin runs an agency in impregnated fabrics or canvases; it became a failure (R36,p14;R37,p47;R49)
- 1885/04: the family moved to 51, Norregade, Copenhagen; Gauguin had a studio at the attic (R37,p358;R36,p14;R181,p595)
- 1885/06/22: Paul had moved back to Paris with his son Clovis; they reside with his friend Schuffenecker at 29, Rue Boullard, Paris; in August and September Gauguin travels to Dieppe and England (R181,p596;R36,p14;R49);
- 1885/09: Gauguin moved to 19, Rue Perdonnet, Paris into the house of Claude Antoine Charles Favre (R36,p14;R181,p597+588)
- 1885/10: Gauguin moved to 10, Rue Cail, Paris (R36,p14;R181,p597)
- 1885/10: Gauguin worked as a sticker of posters and earns just 5 francs a day (R36,p14); other sources mention that he was offered January 1886 a contract as inspector and administrator at an advertisement company, with plans to work as a manager in Madrid; Gauguin never signed the contract (R181,p598)
- 1886: Gauguin makes pots for Ernest Chaplet, whom he had met at the Bracquemond‘s; anyway in June and later from October (R181,p600+602).
- 1886/Summer: lived at Pont-Aven in the pension of Madame Gloanec (R36,p14;R181,p267/8)
- 1886/10/13: moved to 257, Rue Lecourbe, Paris (R181,p602;R36,p14)
- 1887/Spring: sends his son Clovis back to his wife in Copenhagen (R36,p14;R181,no208+604)
- 1887/04 – 1887/06: worked with Charles Laval at the building of the Panama Canal (R36,p14;R49;R181,p317-320+605)
- 1887/06 – 1887/11: with Charles Laval at Martinique (R36,p14;R181,p317-320+606).
- 1887/11: resides with Schuffenecker at 29, Rue Boulard in the 14th arrondissement (R181,p353+607;R36,p14;R49)
- 1888/10/22-12/23: lived in Arles with Vincent van Gogh (R36,p14;R49)
- after 1888/12/23: moved to 25, Boulevard Montsouris, Paris (R36,p14); I could find a 25, Square Montsouris in Paris (iR9), don’t know if it is the same.
- 1889/04: another stay in Pont-Aven (R36,p14)
- 1889-1891: lived at different addresses in Paris and Pouldu; also resides with Schuffenecker at Rue Durand-Clay, Paris (R36,p81); I couldn’t locate the street.
- 1891/04/04: left for Tahiti (R36,p81;R49).
- 1893/08/03: arrival in Marseille; returned to France because he was ill (R36,p81;R49)
- 1893: inherits from his uncle (R49)
- 1893/09/01 onwards: lived at Rue Vercingétorix, Paris (R49) and / or at the Rue de la Grande Chaumière (R36,p81).
- 1894/01: visited his wife in Copenhagen for the last time (R36,p81;R49).
- 1894/05: resides in Pont-Aven, Pouldu, Concarneau and Paris (R36,p81).
- 1895/07/03: left again for Tahiti (R36,p81;R49).
- 1897/03: his daughter Aline had died (R36,p81;R49).
- 1897: published an autobiographic story ‘Noa Noa’ (R3)
- 1900: his son Clovis died (R36,p82;R49).
- 1902: wrote ‘Avant et Après’ (his memoires) (R49)
- 1903/05/08: Gauguin is found dead (R36,p82;R49).
- The bishop Martin destroyed works of Gauguin he found indecent (R36,p82).
My main sources are the Catalogue Raisonné made by Sylvie Crussard (a savage in the making; 1873-1888, 2002=R181=iR186=aR1-12), Dony (1976=R36), Rossen (2002=R37), Huyghe (1989=R49,p91/2), Bolton (1988=R200) and indirectly the Catalogue Raisonné made by Wildenstein and Cogniat (1964=R128=iR187=aR13). Other main sources are Rewald (1873=R1), Moffett (1986=R2), Walther (2013=R3,px), Roe (2006=R4), Denvir (1993=R5;1992=R8), the Salon database (iR1) and the additional references (=aRx). For other general references (=R) see. My main sources (for the pictures) from the internet are the-Athenaeum (iR2), Wikimedia (iR6), the Google Art Project (iR8), Sothebys (iR14), Christies (iR15), Joconde (iR23), art-Gauguin (iR54), and Google images (iR10). For other references to internet sites (=iR) see. For other additional references (=aR) see below. See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.
For further reading:
Walther, Ingo F.: Paul Gauguin, 1848-1903, schilderijen van een verschoppeling. Taschen, Cologne, 1999 (=R199).
Rossen, Susan F. (ed.): Van Gogh en Gauguin; het atelier van het zuiden. Chicago, 2001 / Amsterdam, 2002 (=R37)
- view publitas.com/GauguinI,introduction (online publication of the Catalogue Raisonné, volume 1 of Sylvie Crussard, 2002, starting with an introduction;=R181;=iR185)
- view publitas.com/GauguinI,1873-78 (online publication of the Catalogue Raisonné of Sylvie Crussard, 2002, volume 1, p.x-50, describing the years 1873-78;=R181;=iR185)
- view publitas.com/GauguinI,1879-83 (online publication of the Catalogue Raisonné of Sylvie Crussard, 2002, volume 1, p.51-129, describing the years 1879-83;=R181;=iR185)
- view publitas.com/GauguinI,1883-86 (online publication of the Catalogue Raisonné of Sylvie Crussard, 2002volume 1, p.130-265, describing the years 1883-86 in Rouen, Denmark, Dieppe and Paris;=R181;=iR185)
- view publitas.com/GauguinI,1886 (online publication of the Catalogue Raisonné of Sylvie Crussard, 2002, volume 1, p.266-297, describing the year 1886 in Pont-Aven;=R181;=iR185)
- view publitas.com/GauguinII,1886-87 (online publication of the Catalogue Raisonné of Sylvie Crussard, 2002, volume 2, p299-315, describing his time in Paris in 1886-87;=R181;=iR185)
- view publitas.com/GauguinII,1887 (online publication of the Catalogue Raisonné of Sylvie Crussard, 2002, volume 2, p316-351, describing his time in Martinique in 1887;=R181;=iR185)
- view publitas.com/GauguinII,1887-88 (online publication of the Catalogue Raisonné of Sylvie Crussard, 2002, volume 2, p352-363, describing his time in Paris in 1887-88;=R181;=iR185)
- view publitas.com/GauguinII,1888a (online publication of the Catalogue Raisonné of Sylvie Crussard, 2002, volume 2, p364-499, describing his time in Pont-Aven in 1888;=R181;=iR185)
- view publitas.com/GauguinII,1888b (online publication of the Catalogue Raisonné of Sylvie Crussard, 2002, volume 2, p500-555, describing his time in Arles in 1888;=R181;=iR185)
- view publitas.com/GauguinII,chronology (online publication of the Catalogue Raisonné of Sylvie Crussard, 2002, volume 2, p556-618, describing his chronology 1848-1888;=R181;=iR185)
- view publitas.com/GauguinII,annexes (online publication of the Catalogue Raisonné of Sylvie Crussard, 2002, volume 2, p619-648, giving additional information;=R181;=iR185)
- view.publitas.com/Gauguin1964 (online publication of the Catalogue Raisonné of Georges Wildenstein and Raymond Cogniat of 1964;=R128;=iR186)
- “Paul Gauguin.” In Database of Modern Exhibitions (DoME). European Paintings and Drawings 1905-1915. Last modified Dec 17, 2020. http://exhibitions.univie.ac.at/person/ulan/500011421 =iR261; overview of contributions of Gauguin in exhibitions and auctions from 1905-1915
Recommanded citation: Paul Gauguin, from Impressionism to Symbolism. Last modified 2022/11/25. https://www.impressionism.nl/gauguin-paul/”