Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)
Was Paul Gauguin an Impressionist?
Gauguin joined the ‘impressionist’ expositions in 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882 and 1886:
Gauguin joined the 4th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1879 within being mentioned in the catalogue (=hc). He probably showed at least 3 art-works, including 1 sculpture. (R2,p271+248). He only reacted at the invitation of Pissarro in a letter of 1879/04/03.
At the 5th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1880 Gauguin showed 8 works, including 1 sculpture (catalogue numbers 55-62) (R2,p311;R36,p14;R49). Gauguin was hardly reviewed or criticised as a clumsy recruit under the flag of Pissarro (R37,p41).
At the 6th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1881 Gauguin showed 10 works, including 2 sculptures (catalogue numbers 30-39) (R2,p354;R36,p14;R49). Gauguin was one of the organisers (R37,p43).
At the 7th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1882 Gauguin showed 13 works, including 1 sculpture (catalogue numbers 18-30) (R2,p394;R36,p14;R49). Monet and Renoir found him agressive, dictatorial and arrogant (R37,p44).
At the 8th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1886 Gauguin showed 19+1=20 works, including 1 sculpture (catalogue numbers 42-60+hc) (R2,p444/5;R49). Gauguin already wanted to start organising the 8th exposition in Autumn 1883 (iR37,p45). Félix Bracquemond buys a work of Gauguin (R49).
See link for his -/-art-works. See link for an +/-account.
Gauguin at the Salon and other exhibitions:
Before Gauguin exhibited with the Impressionists he exhibited in 1876 a landscape at the Salon made in 1875 in Viroflay (R36,p13;iR1;R37,p29). That was the only work he exhibited at the Salon. (iR1)
1888/08ca: Theo van Gogh organises the first solo-exhibition of Gauguin at the Boussod & Valadon Gallery, without succes (R36,p14;R49). 1889/06/08: exhibition organised by Gauguin of ‘paintings of the impressionist and Synthetist groupe’ in Café Volpini; he himself shows 17 works (R5,p169;R36,p81;R49;R3). 1889: exhibits with ‘Les XX’ in Brussels (R49;R3). 1891/02/23: an auction sale of 30 paintings at Hôtel Drouot; the revenue amounts to 9860 francs (R36,p81;R49). 1891: exhibits with ‘Les XX’ in Brussels (R49). 1893/11: stimulated by Durand-Ruel exhibits Gauguin’s recent works (R49). 1893: joins the 2nd exhibition of Impressionists and Symbolists (R49). 1894: exhibits with ‘La libre esthétique’ in Brussels (R49). 1895/02/18: second auction sale of 45 paintings and 25 drawings; the revenues are just 2986 francs (R36,p81;R49). 1897: works of Gauguin are exhibited at La Libre Esthétique’ in Brussels (R49). 1898: exhibition at Vollard with works of Gauguin (R49). 1900: works of Gauguin, including 10 large Monotypes are exhibited at the Exposition Universelle (R49). 1903/07: posthumous auction in Atuana, Tahiti (R36,p82). 1903/09/02: posthumous auction in Papeete, Tahiti (R36,p82). 19??: retrospective with 50 paintings at Vollard (R49). 1906: retrospective exhibition at the Salon d’Automne with 227 works (R36,p82;R49).
Later on in 1891 he probably exhibited at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. (iR1)
Paul Gauguin as an artist:
1871: paints with Marguérite Arosa in Saint-Cloud (R36,p13). 1871: meets Emile Schuffenecker and his work at Bertin (R36,p13). Other sources mention that Gauguin started painting in the Summer of 1873 (with Schuffenecker); he paints in the style of Corot (R37,p29;R49). 1874/06: Gauguin visits the free Academy of Colarossi (R36,p13;R49); meets Pissarro there (R36,p13); other sources mention they met at the shop of Latouche (R37,p358); other sources that Schuffenecker introduces him to Pissarro in 1879 (R49). 1876: starts to collect art-works of Cézanne, Guillaumin, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley and also Jongkind and Manet (R1,p410;R49). 1877: learns sculpturing from his neighbour and landlord Jean-Paul Aubé (R37,p29) or Bouillot (R36,p13). 1879: starts to buy impressionist works (R36,p13). 1879/Summer: paints with Pissarro in Pontoise (R37,p41;R3). 1881/Summer: spends a holiday in Pontoise with Pissarro, Guillaumin and Cézanne (R49;R36,p14;R3). 1883: works with Pissarro in Osny (R49). 1884/5: when in Copenhagen Gauguin corresponded with Schuffenecker, Pissarro and Guillaumin (R37,p47). 1886: learns the art of ceramics of Ernest Chaplet (or: Champlet; Bracquemond did introduce him (R36,p14;R49). 1886/Summer: stays in Pont-Aven; meets Emile Bernard (R36,p14;R40). 1886/11/13: meets Vincent van Gogh (R36,p14;R49). 1887/06-11: with Charles Aval in Martinique (R36). 1888/08: meets Emile Bernard again in Pont-Aven (R36,p14). 1888/10/22-12/23: lives with Vincent van Gogh in the ‘yellow house’ in Arles (R36,p14). 1889: co-organizer of an exhibition in Copenhagen of French and Nordic Impressionists (R49). 1891/02: portrays Redon (R36,p81). Regular guest at Café Voltaire where Symbolists come together (R49). 1891: quarrel with Bernard (R3).
Gauguin and le Cloisonisme:
Gauguin and le Synthetisme:
1883/84: Gauguin writes his first ‘notes synthétiques’, in which he rejects the impressionist analyses of light and atmosphere; it would take some time before he would paint according his ideas (R37,p47). 1888/08: With Emile Bernard, Gauguin founds the ‘synthetic symbolism’ (R36,p14;R49). They give up the painting en-plein-air; emphasize the role of memory and reinterpretation, to discover the structures of the object (R49).
Gauguin and the Nabis:
1888/10: Sérusier paints the ‘Talisman’, the first Nabis-work (R36,p14).
Eugène-Henri-Paul Gauguin, a short biography:
- There are no sources of Gauguin his youth accept his own memoires written at the end of his live; this makes all the data until 1873 unreliable (R37,p23)
- 1848/06/07: Eugène-Henri-Paul Gauguin was born at 52 (now: 56), Rue Notre-Dame de Lorette in Paris (R36,p13;R49)
- 1849/08/08: the family move to Lima, Peru, his mother has Peruvian blood (R37,p24); other sources mention they left in October (R36,p13) or even 1851 (R49).
- 1849/10/30: his father dies (R36,p13)
- 1855: Paul, his mother and his sister Marie Marceline (1846-x) move to France to Orléans (R36,p13;R49)
- 1861: his mother moves to Paris; Paul stays at a seminary in Orléans (R37,p29); other sources mention this was in 1859 (R49).
- 1865/12/07: Paul starts to work on a trading ship (R36,p13;R37,p29;R49)
- 1867/07/07: his mother died in Saint-Cloud; Gustave Arosa becomes the legal guardian of the 19 years old Paul (R36,p13;R37,p29;R49)
- 1868/02-71/04: military service (R49;R36,p13;R37,p29)
- 1871/04/25: Gauguin rents a house at 15, Rue la Bruyère, Paris (R36,p13)
- 1871-77: Gauguin works at the stock brokerage firm of Bertin; his colleague is Emile Schuffenecker, with whom he becomes friends (R36,p13;R37,p357/8;R49)
- 1872: Gauguin had received a large inheritance of his uncle (R37,p29;R49)
- 1873/Spring: meets Mette-Sophie Gad, a Danish working as governess in Paris (R36,p13)
- 1873/11/22: Paul and Mette get married (R36,p13;R37,p29;R49)
- 1874/08/31: his son Emile is born (R36,p13;R37,p29/R49)
- 1877: the family move to Rue des Fourneaux (now: Rue Falguère, Paris) (R36,p13)
- 1877/12/24: his daughter Aline is born (R36,p13;R37,p29;R49)
- 1879: works with the banker Bourdon (R37,p357)
- 1879/05/08: his son Clovis is born (R36,p14); or at the 10th (R49).
- 1879: the family moves to 8, Rue Carcel, Vaugirard, Paris, a large house with a studio (R36,p14) or in 1880 (R49)
- 1880: works at an agency (R36,p357).
- 1881/04/12: his son Jean-René is born (R49;R36,p14)
- 1883/01: Gauguin loses his job at Bertin and becomes fulltime artist (R36,p14;R49); other sources mention he already worked somewhere else (R37).
- 1883/12/06: his son Pola (Paul) is born (R36,p14)
- 1884: financial problems; the family moves to Rouen (R36,p14)
- 1884/end: the family move to 105, Gambe Kongvej, Copenhagen (R36,p14)
- 1884/Autumn – 1885/06: Gauguin runs an agency in impregnated fabrics or canvases; it becomes a failure (R36,p14;R37,p47;R49)
- 1885/04: the family moved to 51, Norregade, Copenhagen; Gauguin had a studio at the attic (R37,p358;R36,p14)
- 1885/06: Paul moves back to Paris with his son Clovis; they reside with his friend Schuffenecker at 29, Rue Boullard, Paris; later they move to Rue des Fourneaux, Paris; later he travels to Dieppe and England (R36,p14;R49)
- 1885/09: Gauguin moves to 19, Rue Perdonnet, Paris (R36,p14)
- 1885/10: Gauguin moves to 10, Rue Cail, Paris (R36,p14)
- 1885/10: Gauguin works as a sticker of posters and earns just 5 francs a day (R36,p14)
- 1886/Summer: lives at Pont-Aven in the pension of Madame Gloanec (R36,p14)
- 1886/11/13: moves to 257, Rue Lecourbe, Paris (R36,p14)
- 1887: sends his son Clovis back to his wife in Copenhagen (R36,p14)
- 1887/04-06: works with Charles Laval at the building of the Panama Canal (R36,p14;R49)
- 1887/06-11: with Charles Laval at Martinique (R36,p14).
- 1887/11: resides with Schuffenecker (R36,p14;R49)
- 1888/02: another stay at Pont-Aven (R36,p14;R49)
- 1888/10/22-12/23: lives in Arles (R36,p14;R49)
- 1888/12/23: moved to 25, Boulevard Montsouris, Paris (R36,p14)
- 1889/04: another stay in Pont-Aven (R36,p14)
- 1889-1891: lives at different addresses in Paris and Pouldu; also resides with Schuffenecker at Rue Durand-Clay, Paris (R36,p81).
- 1891/04/04: leaves for Tahiti (R36,p81;R49).
- 1893/08/03: arrival in Marseille; returned to France because he was ill (R36,p81;R49)
- 1893: inherits from his uncle (R49)
- 1893/09/01-12/01: lies at 6, Rue Vercingétorix, Paris (R36,p81;R49).
- 1893/12-1894/1: visits his wife in Copenhagen for the last time (R36,p81;R49).
- 1894/5: resides in Pont-Aven, Pouldu, Concarneau and Paris (R36,p81).
- 1895/07/03: leaves again for Tahiti (R36,p81;R49).
- 1897/03: his daughter Aline had died (R36,p81;R49).
- 1897: publishes an autobiographic story ‘Noa Noa’ (R3)
- 1900: his son Clovis died (R36,p82;R49).
- 1902: writes ‘Avant et Après’ (his memoires) (R49)
- 1903/05/08: Gauguin is found dead (R36,p82;R49).
- The bishop Martin destroys works of Gauguin he finds indecent (R36,p82).
My main sources are Dony (1976=R36), Rossen (2002-R37), Huyghe (1989=R49,p91/2). Other main sources are Rewald (1873=R1), Moffett (1986=R2), Walther (2013=R3,px), Roe (2006=R4), Denvir (1993=R5;1992=R8), the Salon database (iR1) and the additional references (=aRx). For other general references (=R) see. My main sources (for the pictures) from the internet are Wikimedia (iR6) and xx. For other references to internet sites (=iR) see. For other additional references (=aR) see below. See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.