Bracquemond, Marie



Impressionism: partaker of 3 ‘impressionist’ expositions

Marie-Anne-Caroline (Pasquiou-)Quivoron

Marie Bracquemond


A maker of impressionist masterpieces

Was Marie Bracquemond an Impressionist?
In books about Impressionism Marie Bracquemond is not or hardly mentioned, while she is one of the great women Impressionists. Marie Bracquemond exhibited at 3 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions, but she probably had no active role. She had contacts with Degas, Gauguin, Monet, Sisley and Renoir, but how close they were, is not clear. In this sense she was part of the ‘impressionist’ art-movement, but she was not a key figure like Berthe Morisot.
Did Marie Bracqeumond paint in an impressionist painting style? Yes in the sense that at an early age she already painted en-plein-air. No, in the sense that she depicted Néo-Classical and Romantic themes like the Muses of art. No in the sense that her earlier portraits were more formal in their pose. Yes in the sense that already around 1877 she was occupied with the influence of sunlight on white dresses, rendering blues for the shadow parts. No in the sense that these paintings had a ‘kinship with 18th-century painting’ (aR11,p4). No in the sense that several reviews of the ‘impressionist’ expositions found her ‘out-of-place’ and not an impressionist. Yes because she made several impressionist masterpieces, maybe even better than Berthe Morisot, using bright colours and juxta-posed brushstrokes. But even for (some of) these pictures she made preparatory sketches and drawings, as she often did. And she still rendered many details, as she often did. So in the works of Marie Bracquemond we can discern various painting styles and in several paintings we can discern a predominantly impressionist painting style. But, because most of her paintings are not dated it is hard to see a clear development. Several sources see an impressionist phase that started around 1886. But maybe Marie Bracquemond started already around 1880 in a more impressionist style and did vary in the styles she used. Further investigation is necessary.

Mlle Marie Pasquiou(x)-Quivoron / Mme Marie Bracquemond at the Salon:
At the Salon Marie Bracquemond first used the name of her mother Pasquiou (or: Pasquioux), sometimes added with the name of her father Quivoron. Mostly it was wrongly written as Pasquioux and one of her first names is wrongly written as Antonine. Also her birth village is wrongly rendered as Albi. (iR1;aR17). She made her debut at the Salon with a family portrait in 1859 (iR1;iR24). Several sources wrongly mention this was in 1857 (iR3-5;iR22;aR9). Maybe her first admission was in 1857; these two drawings were probably rejected (iR69; note: by than she was just 16 years old.) She would exhibit again in 1864+65+66+67+68+69. And after her marriage in 1869 with Félix Bracquemond she would exhibit as Mme Marie Bracquemond in 1874+75. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 she exhibited charcoal panels depicting the Muses of Art, in 1879 she would exhibited them again at the ‘impressionist’ exposition. See link to an overview of her pictures See link for an account of the exhibited works.

Marie Bracquemond joined the impressionists in 1879, 1880 and 1886:
In 1879 Marie Bracquemond joined the 4th ‘impressionist’ exposition with 2 art-works (catalogue numbers 1+2). The first art-work consisted of 3 charcoal panels, sized in total 3×7 meters, depicting the Muses of Art. It was appreciated and reviewed by many. But it was also reviewed that this Néo-Classical theme was ‘out-of-place’ at this exposition (R90I,p241). The second work was plate of earthenware / faience. Marie was invited by Degas (iR24;R1,p448;R89,p46). Marie (probably) didn’t exhibit fans as Sue Roe suggests, though she was invited to do so (R4,p203;R168,p235).
In 1880 Marie Bracquemond joined the 5th ‘impressionist’ exposition with 3 paintings (catalogue numbers 1-3). Probably she didn’t exhibit a work outside the catalogue as Moffett suggests (R2,p310+317). Her name was not on the posters (R4,p216), more precise the name ‘Bracquemond’ was only 1x mentioned, probably referring to her more known husband Félix. The art-critic Michel remarked that she shows to much correctness to be a good impressionist. Silvestre remarks that her range of colours is brighter than Morisot. Silvestre also calls her remiscent to Boucher. (R90I,p299+306).
In 1886 Marie Bracquemond joined the 8th ‘impressionist’ exposition with 6 works (catalogue numbers 1-6). Writing to Félix Bracquemond, Degas early May indirectly invited Marie to exhibit (R5,p151). Javel reviewed (her art-works) ‘are correct in a way that is anything but impressionistic.’ (R90I,p459) Also Fouquier sees her not linked to the school of plein air. (R90I,p448) So, overall Marie Bracquemond isn’t seen as belonging to the ‘impressionist’ school.
In total Marie Bracquemond showed just 11 art-works. It included 6 oil paintings, 2 aquarelles, 2 drawings and a plate of earthenware / faience, see other techniques.
See link to her exhibited pictures. See link for an account of the exhibited works.

Marie Bracquemond at other exhibitions:
Marie Bracquemond also exhibited at some other exhibitions, but the information is quite limited. Marie exhibited at some regional exhibitions. 1869/08 Marie exhibited ‘Fauconnerie’ at the Exposition Municipale de Beaux-Arts in Rouen (aR17). 1870/08 Marie exhibited at the Salon de Vichy ‘La Mandarine’ (=1867, SD, La Japonaise) (aR17). In 1876 Marie Bracquemond (together with Félix) exhibited various porcelain vessels and plaques at the ‘Exposition de l’Union centrale des arts décoratifs’ (R168,p302;R88I,p76;R3). From 1879-1882 some of her drawings were published in La Vie Moderne (aR9,p24;R90I,p320;aR17;aR15;aR14). In 1881 she exhibited 5 works at the Dudley Gallery in London (iR5;iR22;aR9,p24;aR15). In 1890 she exhibited 4 etchings and 4 paintings at the 2nd exhibition of the ‘Société des Peintres-graveurs français’ at Durand-Ruel (aR9,p23;aR17;iR3). Marie Bracquemond also made bookillustrations for Victor Hugo; 1 was exhibited in 1891 at the Georges Petit gallery. In 1893 Marie Bracquemond was part of the show of French Women Painters at the World Fair in Chicago (aR20=iR414;aR17). In 1912 a work of Marie Bracquemond was exhibited at the Centennial exhibition in Saint-Peterbourg (aR13). In 1919 (19-31 May) there was a posthumous exhibition at the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery, showing 89 paintings + 1 pastel + 1 earthenware panel, 35 watercolours, 23 drawings, 9 etchings and 4 other works; the introduction was written by Gustave Geffroy (aR11;iR19;iR4).
See link to an overview of her pictures See link for an account of the exhibited works.


Marie Bracquemond, her early years as an artist:
Marie Bracquemond received in 1854 her first painting lessons from M. Auguste Vassort in Étampes (R168,p302;iR24;iR3;iR4;aR9;aR15; note wrongly mention by Geffroy and others ‘Wassor’; aR11,p6). In the summers she painted (watercolours) in the countryside (aR9;R168,p302). At the Salon of 1859 she is called a pupil of Vassort and Ingres, but these names don’t return in the catalogues of later Salons (iR1). According to some sources Marie attended the studio of Ingres for some time probably around 1860 (aR9;R89,p46), but according to an unpublished letter of Marie Bracquemond it was limited to one encounter: “I think about that visit every day (…) And so I don’t want to go and see Mr Ingres again.” (R268,p233+302). This is affirmed by Geffroy (aR11,p6). This encounter must have taken place before the Salon of 1859, maybe in the mid-1850s (iR1;R168,p302). In that same letter she writes that Ingres discouraged his young artists and had a low esteem of women artists, namely Rosa Bonheur. Ingres limited the women artists to still-lifes, portraits and genre scenes. (aR9,p22+23;R168,p232/3;aR16). In 1877 (or 1878) Philippe Burty called her ‘one of the most intelligent pupils to come out of the Ingres studio’ (R168,p302;R88I,p76;iR3;iR22;aR9;aR16). It was Ingres who introduced her to his students Hippolyte Flandrin and Émile Signol (1804-92), but maybe she never attended the studio of Flandrin (iR3;iR24;aR9,p23;R168,p233+302). In the Salon database the name of Signol returns as her teacher in the years 1866-69 (iR1). But probably earlier her teacher was Désiré François Laugée (1823-96); his name is mentioned in the Salons of 1864-69 (iR1). Laugée also was a pupil of Ingres (iR24) and was a witness at her wedding in 1869. The Salon database also mentions (in 1866 +1867) Hugues Merle (1822-81) as her teacher (iR1;aR14;R9,p525).
At the Salon of 1868 she exhibited a painting called ‘Cervantès, dans sa prison’, it belonged to M. Damas-Hinard (iR1). This was a commission from the court of the empress Eugénie de Montijo (iR3;iR5;aR9). After that she was asked by Count de Nieuwekerke to make copies in the Louvre as a profession (iR3;aR9;aR17). Pothey called her in 1868 ‘a teacher in drawing on schools in Paris’ (R265,no.15). In her earlier years Marie depicted medieval themes and exhibited one at the Salon of 1875 (R168,p232;aR9,p23;aR16;aR14;iR1). It can be seen as part of a Romantic phase (R168,p232). In these early years she also made several portraits, which have an attentiveness to composition and rigorous construction (R168,p133). In the 1870s several paintings had a ‘kinship with 18th-century painting’ as Geffroy put it, more explicitly to Boucher as Silvestre suggests (aR11,p4;R90I,p306).

Marie & Félix Bracquemond, applied art and etching:
Around 1866 or 1867 Félix Bracquemond noticed her in the Louvre (R73,p8;R168,p302;iR5;aR9). A meeting was arranged by the art-critic Montrosier or by the painter Amédée Besnus (aR11,p6;aR17). Soon they would be engaged and 1869/08/05 they married (aR17;R88I,p76;iR5;aR9). 1871 onwards they worked together to design faïence (R73,p9;iR3;iR24;aR9,p23). In 1871 Félix was artistic director of the ‘Atelier de peinture de la Manufacture nationale de céramique de Sèvres’ (R168,p302;R73,p9). From 1872-81 Félix was artistic director of the faïence studio called ‘Auteuil’, 116, Rue Michel Ange Paris, owned by Charles Haviland (aR17;R73,p9;iR3;iR24;aR9,p23;aR15;R168,p302). Marie designed plates for dinner services and large faience tile panels depicting the muses, which were shown at the Exposition Universelle in 1878 (aR9,p23;iR3). Marie exhibited them at the 4th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1879 (R2,p266;R90II,p105; and not in 1880 as Denvir mentions; R8,p356). According to Clara Erskin Clement (1904) Marie ‘produced a clearness and richness not attained by other artists. The progress in the Haviland faience in the 70s was very largely due to Madame Bracquemond’ (aR9,p23). In 1894 Geffroy wrote ’there are a number of earthenware pieces decorated by Mme Bracquemond, and they are much sought after for the pronounced arabesque of their drawing and the beauty of their colours.’ (R168,p234;R157III,p272;aR11,p3). Marie mainly depicted figures (R168,p234).
Félix Bracquemond was an eminent etcher. He taught Marie etching (aR11,p7;R168,p240). She made a limited amount of etchings, 9 of them were at the posthumous exhibition in 1919 (aR11).

Marie Bracquemond, within impressionist circles:
Marie was inspired by Alfred Stevens, Chardin, Manet, Monet, Renoir and Degas (iR3-5;R73,p17;aR9). She and Félix had contact with and did correspond with Manet (R5,p151;R88I,p77). Monet was her favourite painter (R8,p136;aR15). Between 1877-80 Sisley lived close by in Sèvres. It is said that Marie portrayed him and his wife around 1880 in ‘L’Hirondelle’ and later in 1887 in ‘Sous la lampe’ (R4,p201;iR5;aR1;R38;R88I,p77), but this is probably not true (see overview). In a painting of her sister in a garden dated 1877 Marie used blues for the shadow parts on the white dress (aR11,p4). In these years 1877-80 her colours intensified (aR9,p23).
In 1886 Gauguin spent some time at the Bracquemond’s home. He taught Marie how to prepare her canvas in order to achieve intense tones (iR3;aR6,p24;aR15). Pierre (1925) suggests that this technique forced her to work with short strokes systhematically laid down as hatchings’ and also that she deliberatly opposed to the ideas of her husband Félix in his 1885 publication ‘Du dessin et de la couleur’ (R168,p238). This makes that several sources mention that her style became more impressionist after 1886/87 (R168,p237/8;iR3;iR22;aR6;aR15). This would mean that ‘Sur la terrasse à Sèvres’ and ‘La Goûter’ must be dated around that time, while they are mostly dated around 1880. Marie-Françoise Bastit-Lesourd finds Marie more a cameleon. ‘She seems to go back in time or have very different styles for the same period.’ (aR17) I think it is important also to look at the works of Marie Bracquemond from this assumption. Bastit-Lesourd also mentions that Marie probably was influenced by Besnard (aR17).
Mary liked to paint en-plein-air (R5,p119;R8,p316; note some sources suggest that Degas in this also was her mentor, but Degas hardly painted outdoors). Her use of colour is fresh and light (R9). In her paintings ’the light is logically decomposed, the colour ardently and harmoniously exalted’ (R157III,p274). ‘Her forms were less sketchy and spontaneous, retaining to some degree her Neoclassical training and the finished surfaces associated with the academic style’ (aR16). Marie Bracquemond prepared her paintings in a traditional way through sketches and drawings (iR3;aR15 see overview). Geffroy praised her depicted women for it’s ‘revealing exactness of the meticulous hands, tranquil face, and finely worked eyes’ (R168,p236;R157III).
Gustave Geffroy (1894) described her as one of the three ‘grandes dames d’impressionnisme’ (iR5;aR9,p21;R157,vol.III;R88I,p76;iR22). Edmond Epardaud (Le Figaro 1919/05/22) called her ‘an artist less nervouw than Berthe Morisot and more tender than Miss Cassatt’ (aR17). Geffroy also admired her ’taste for backlighting and projected shadows, the refinement of colour variations applied in dabs of colour and the ease with which they are applied’ (R88I,p77).

Marie Bracquemond, years of retreat:
According to her son Pierre, Félix Bracquemond was resentful of his wife, because she had a grace and delicacy he could not achieve. Félix was reluctant to show her paintings to visitors and was objecting her impressionist style (iR3;iR5;aR9,p25;R89,p46). Félix in his 1885 publication ‘Du dessin et de la couleur’ defended the absolute supremacy of ‘modelling’, the organized distribution of black and white values; in other words he lay emphise on drawing; Marie did on colour (R168,p238-241). Pierre described his father as arrogant, overbearing, tempestuous and obstinate (aR9;R168,p239). Marie-Françoise Bastit-Lesourd (aR17) has doubts about this view, that is one-sidely based on the unpublished writings of Pierre. She conciders more the illnesses of both Marie and Félix. But, Gustave Geffroy, who attended the Sunday ‘déjeuners’ at the Villa Brancas, seems to affirm the view of Pierre. He called Félix an authoritarian who always wanted to be right (aR9,p25;R157III;aR11,p6;aR16;aR17). Marie defended the impressionist painting style: ‘It is as though all at once a window opens and the sun and air enter your house in torrents.’ She defended Renoir (no one has ever arrived at a power of analysis of fonal values) and Monet (he produces in me such sensations as make me happy) (aR9,p26;R168,p238;iR13). After 1890 she almost completely abandoned painting (iR24;iR3;aR1;aR9,p25). She lived a life in solitude and regret and no longer visited any exhibition (aR9,p27).

Marie-Anne-Caroline Bracquemond-(Pasquiou-)Quivoron, a short biography:
Note: for several biographical data I am obliged to the extended blog of Marie-Françoise Bastit-Lesourd (aR17=aR10).

  • 1840/12/01: Marie-Anne-Caroline Quivoron was born in Argenton-en-Landunvez, near Brest (Finestère) (R168,p302;iR3;iR24;iR69;iR22;iR67;aR17;aR15).
    Some sources wrongly indicate she was born in 1841, probably following Geffroy in the 1919 catalogue (aR11,p6;iR11).
    Walther and Spiess (wrongly) mention she was born in Morlaix (Finistère), probably following Geffroy in the 1919 catalogue (aR11,p6;R3;R16;R9). The Salon database (wrongly) mentions that she was born in Alby or Albi (Tarn), in the south of France (iR1).
    She is sometimes named Antonine-Marie or Marie-Antoine, but mostly Marie (iR1). Sometimes her last name is spelled as ‘Quiveron’ (R73,p8).
  • Her parents married 1838/05/07 (aR17)
    Her father Théodore Quivoron, was a sea-captain; he was born 1810/02/08 and died 1864/05/25 (aR17), though others claim he died 1841ca (iR3;aR9); he later would move to Lannion (aR17)
    Her mother, Aline-Hyacinthe-Marie Pasquiou was born 1819/04/24 in a a wealthy family; she died 1871/11 (aR17).
    Marie had an older brother named Ernest Théodore, born 1839/05/28, he died 1871/03 and was raised by his aunt in Bretagne (aR17;iR5;R168,p302)
  • According to some sources her mother, Aline-Hyacinthe-Marie Pasquiou remarried Émile Langlois (iR3), according to another source this is not fully clear and suggest they lived unmarried together (aR17); note: Bouillon and Kane suggest she remarried M. Pasquiou (aR9). They had a son (also) called Emile.
  • Marie would later adopt the last name of her mother and became known as Marie Pasquiou-Quivoron (iR3);
  • 1843: her mother moved to her home town Lannion; here she meets her future partner Emile Langlois, later they move to Le Havre and Paris (R168,p302).
  • They moved from Brittany, to the Jura, to Switserland, to Limousin (with it’s capital Limoges), to Corrèze in the Auvergne (near Ussel) and at last settled in Étampes, 50km south of Paris (iR3;aR9), but there is no concrete source for these suggestions (aR17)
  • 1849/10/12: her (half-)sister Louise-Marie-Mathilde was born in St. Fréjoux, near Corrèze (aR17;iR3;iR5;aR9;r168,p302). She is often named Quivoron (R3;R5,p119;R8,p316;R73,p48), which would mean she carried the name of Marie her father, while probably Émile Langlois was her father. Louise will be Marie her favorite model (R5,p119;R8,p136).
  • 1854-59: Marie Pasquioux dwelled at 72, Rue Saint-Jacques, Étampes (iR1;iR24)
  • 1865-68: Marie Pasquiou-Quiveron dwelled at 1, Boulevard d’Enfer (Paris?; location unknown) (iR1)
  • 1867ca: met Félix Bracquemond; they get engaged (iR5)
  • 1869/08/05: Marie married Félix Bracquemond (iR67;iR5;aR1;iR24;aR9;aR17)
  • 1869: Marie Pasquiou (and Félix) settled at 19, Rue de l’Université, Paris (iR1;aR9;aR17)
  • 1870/06/21: their only child Pierre-Jacques was born (iR17;iR22;R9;aR9) Since then her health was weak (aR17;R168)
  • Marie Bracquemond gave drawing lessons at a school (R3)
  • 1871: in March her brother Ernest died and in November her mother (aR17)
  • 1871-75+: Marie Bracquemond lived in the villa Brancas, 3bis, Rue de Brancas, Sèvres (Seine-et-Oise) (iR1;aR9); before that at 11, Rue Potin, Sèvres (aR17)
  • 1897/06: her son Pierre married in Paris Aline Barbedette; later on they had a daughter (aR17)
  • 1914/09/15 Félix Bracquemond died at the age of 81 in Paris (R5,p236); Other sources mention this was in 1914/10/29 (iR3;iR67); still another source mentions 1914/10/27 (aR17).
  • 1916/01/17: Marie Bracquemond died in Sèvres (iR24;R9;aR17;aR11;aR15;); according to other sources in Paris (iR3;iR22).
    She is burried in Sèvres, grave number 47 (aR17).
  • 1919/05/19-31: retrospective at Bernheim-Jeune including 91 paintings (nos.1-90bis); 35 aquarelles (91-135); 23 drawings (126-148); 8 etchings (149-157) (aR11=iR19;aR23=iR242)
  • 1925: Pierre Bracquemond wrote an unpublished biography: ‘La vie de Félix et Marie Bracquemond’; it contained 100 pages (iR3;R168,p232), it was the most important source for the article of Bouillon and Kane (aR9,p27).
  • 1926: her son Pierre Bracquemond died; he also was an artist and exhibited at the Salon d’Automne in 1903 + 1905 and at the Salon (de la Société des Artistes Français) 1898 onwards (R240;iR19;aR12;R9;iR1)

My main sources are Jean-Paul Bouillon in Pfeiffer (2008=R168), an article of Bouillon and Kane (aR9), the thorough and extended article of Marie Françoise Bastit-Lesourd (aR17=aR10), the writings of Geffroy in 1894 (R157III,p268-274) and in the 1919 catalogue (=aR11). Additional sources are Rewald (1973=R1), Moffett (1986=R2), Walther (2013=R3,p650), Roe (2006=R4), Denvir (R5+R8), Schurr&Cabane (2008=R9,p122), Spiess (1992=R16,p81), Rappard-Boon (1993=R73), Monneret (R88I,p76+77), Adler (R89), Crussard (2002=R181,no214), the Salon database (iR1), Wikipedia (iR3-iR5), RKD (iR24), Bénézit (iR69) and the other additional references (aR…). For other general references (=R) see. My main sources (for the pictures) from the internet are the-Athenaeum (iR2), Wikimedia (iR6), artnet (iR13), WGI (iR22), Joconde (iR23), rmngp (iR127), Parismusees (iR195), Louvre (M5) and Google images (iR10). For other references to internet sites (=iR) see. For other additional references (=aR) see below. See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.

Further reading:
Bouillon, J.P.: Félix et Marie Bracquemond. Mortagne-Chartres, 1972 (see R73,p62).


Additional references:

  1. Vanished Impressionists 4 (short article on Marie Bracquemond and others on the = iR35)
  2. WGI (biography taken from Wikipedia; =iR22)
  3. San Francisco Fine Arts Museum (info exposition 2008 in San Francisco and Frankfurt)
  4. Catalogue ‘Women Impressionists’ (2008; see)
  5. (several pictures with limited information; biography from Wikipedia; not secured; advertisements)
  6. (article and high quality pictures on Marie Bracquemond (note: not all pictures made by her); not secured; =iR92)
  7. (info and high quality pictures on Marie Bracquemond (note: not all pictures made by her); =iR204)
  8. (72 pictures of Marie Bracquemond; you have to be member for access (note: not all pictures made by her); =iR64)
  9. (article on Marie Bracquemond by Jean-Paul Bouillon and Elizabeth Kane; Woman’s Art Journal; Vol. 5, No. 2 (Autumn, 1984 – Winter, 1985), pp. 21-27; Published by: Woman’s Art Inc.)
  10. (french article on Marie Bracquemond by Marie-Françoise Bastit-Lesourd; =aR17)
  11. Catalogue des peintures, aquarelles, dessins et eaux-fortes de Marie Bracquemond at Berheim-Jeune in Paris in 1919; with a preface by Gustave Geffroy (=iR19)
  12. “Pierre Bracquemond.” In Database of Modern Exhibitions (DoME). European Paintings and Drawings 1905-1915. Last modified Jun 22, 2020. ;=iR261
  13. “Marie Bracquemond.” In Database of Modern Exhibitions (DoME). European Paintings and Drawings 1905-1915. Last modified Mar 17, 2021.  =iR261; overview of contributions of Marie Bracquemond in exhibitions and auctions from 1905-1915; this is only the exhibition in Saint-Peterbourg in 1912, see R249.
  14. (page with info and pictures of Marie Bracquemond)
  15. (article on Marie Bracquemond; =iR317)
  16. (article by Sarah Bochicchio 2018/10/22)
  17. (article by Marie-Françoise Bastit-Lesourd (written between 2017/09 and 2023/03) on Marie Bracquemond, based on extended research, also discussing the (wrong) attributing of work to Marie and rendering a biography; =aR10)
  18. (page with large pictures of Marie Bracquemond and short info; note: maybe not all pictures made by Marie)
  19. (reproductions and info)
  20. (info on the partaking of French Women artists at the World Fair in Chicago in 1893, including Marie Bracquemond; =iR414)
  21. (info on exhibition in the Orangerie in 2022, depicting a plate made by Marie Bracquemond; =M3)
  22. (info on exhibition in the Orangerie in 2022, including plates made by Marie Bracquemond; =M3)
  23. (catalogue of retrospective 19-31 May 1919 at Berhheim-Jeune; =iR242)


Recommanded citation: “Impressionism: Marie Bracquemond (Marie Pasquiou-Quivoron; 1840-1916), a maker of impressionist masterpieces. Last modified 2024/03/18.”