Marie Bracquemond (1841-1916)
a great female Impressionist
Was Marie Bracquemond an Impressionist?
In books about Impressionism Marie Bracquemond is not or hardly mentioned, while she is one of the great woman Impressionists. On the internet there are not many pictures to be found and most info is copied.
Marie had contacts with Degas, Gauguin, Monet and Renoir, but how close they were is uncertain. She exhibited in 3 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions, but she probably had no active role. In this sense she was part of the ‘impressionist’ art-movement, but she was not a key figure like Berthe Morisot.
Her drawings and etchings are more realistic rendering details. Earlier portraits also were more formal in their pose. Another more traditional way of painting was here use of preparatory sketches and drawings. But on the other hand with ‘afternoon tea’, ‘on the terrace’ and ‘under the lamp’ she made some impressionist masterpieces, using bright colours, juxta-posed brushstrokes and rendering the influence of sunlight. In that sense she fully used the impressionist painting style, maybe even better than Berthe Morisot.
Mlle Marie Pasquiou(x)-Quivoron / Mme Marie Bracquemond at the Salon:
At the Salon Marie Bracquemond first used the name of her mother Pasquiou (or: Pasquioux), sometimes added with the name of her father Quivoron. She made her debut at the Salon with a family portrait in 1859 (iR1;iR24). Several sources wrongly mention this was in 1857 (iR3-5;iR22;). Maybe her first admission was in 1857; these two drawings were probably rejected (iR69). She would exhibit again in 1864+65+66+67+68+69. And after her marriage as Mme Marie Bracquemond in 1874+75.
Marie Bracquemond joined the impressionists in 1879, 1880 and 1886:
In 1879 Marie Bracquemond joined the 4th ‘impressionist’ exposition with 2 works (catalogue numbers 1+2). She was invited by Degas (iR24;R1,p448). Roe suggests she also exhibited fans (R4,p203).
In 1880 Marie Bracquemond joined the 5th ‘impressionist’ exposition with 3+1hc paintings (catalogue numbers 1-3). Her name was not on the posters (R4,p216).
In 1886 Marie Bracquemond joined the 8th ‘impressionist’ exposition with 6 works (catalogue numbers 1-6). Writing to Félix Bracquemond, Degas early May indirectly invites Marie to exhibit (R5,p151).
See link to her pictures. See link for an account of the exhibited works (references, translations, info, discussion, locations on Google-maps).
Marie Bracquemond as an artist:
1854: Marie Bracquemond received her first painting lessons from Auguste Vassort (iR24;iR3;iR5). At the Salon of 1859 she is called a pupil of Vassort and Ingres, but these names don’t return at later Salons (iR1). For a time she attended the studio of Ingres. Philippe Burty (1878) called her ‘one of the most intelligent pupils in Ingres’ studio’ (iR3;iR22). It was Ingres who introduced her to his students Hippolyte Flandrin and Émile Signol (iR3;iR24). In the Salon database the name of Signol returns as her teacher in the years 1866-69 (iR1). But probably first her teacher was Laugée; his name is mentioned in the Salons of 1864-69 (iR1). Désirée François Laugée also was a pupil of Ingris (iR24).
At the Salon of 1868 she exhibited a painting called ‘Cervantès, dans sa prison’, it belonged to M. Damas-Hinard (iR1). According to Wikipedia it was a commission from the court of the empress Eugénie de Montijo (iR3;iR5). After that she was asked by Count de Nieuwekerke to make copies in the Louvre (iR3).
Around 1867 Félix Bracquemond noticed her in the Louvre (R73,p8;iR5). A meeting was arranged by the art-critic Montrosier. Soon they would be engaged and in 1869 they married (iR5). 1871 onwards: They work together to design faïence (R73,p9;iR3;iR24). In 1871 Félix was artistic director at the ‘Manufacture de Sèvres’ (R73,p9) and from 1872-81 at the faïence studio at Auteuil owned by Charles Haviland (R73,p9;iR3;iR24). Marie designs plates for dinner services (iR3). Two of them she exhibited at the 4th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1879 (R2,p266; and not in 1880 as Denvir mentions; R8,p356).
Marie was inspired by Alfred Stevens, Chardin, Manet, Monet, Renoir and Degas (iR3-5;R73,p17). She and Félix did correspond with Manet (R5,p151). Monet was her favourite painter (R8,p136). Between 1877-80 Sisley lives close by in Sèvres; Mary later on portrays him and his wife ‘sous la lampe’ in 1887 (R4,p201;iR5;aR1;R38). In 1886 Gauguin spent some time at the Bracquemond’s home. He taught Marie how to prepare her canvas in order to achieve intense tones (iR3). Several sources mention that her style became more impressionist after 1887 (iR3;iR22;aR6), but I guess this must be 1880. Marie Bracquemond prepared her paintings in a traditional way through sketches and drawings (iR3). She liked to paint en-plein-air (R5,p119;R8,p316). Her use of colour is fresh and light (R9).
According to her son Pierre, Félix was resentful of his wife, refusing to show her paintings to visitors and objecting her impressionist style (iR3;iR5). Marie defended the impressionist painting style: ‘It is as though all at once a window opens and the sun and air enter your house in torrents.’ (iR13) Around 1890 she abandoned painting (iR24;iR3;aR1). Gustave Geffroy (1894) described her as one of the three ‘grandes dames d’impressionnisme’ (iR5;iR22).
Marie-Anne-Caroline Bracquemond-Quivoron, a short biography:
- 1840/12/01: Marie-Anne-Caroline Quivoron was born in Argenton-en-Landunvez, near Brest (Finestère) (iR3;iR24;iR69;iR22). The Salon database mentions that she was born in Alby or Albi (Tarn) (iR1). Walther and Spiess mention she was born in Morlaix (Finistère) (R3;R16;R9).
She is sometimes named Antonine-Marie or Marie-Antoine, but mostly Marie (iR1). Sometimes her last name is spelled as ‘Quiveron’ (R73,p8).
Marie had an older brother named Ernest Théodore (1839-1871) (iR5)
- 1841ca: her father, a sea-captain died (iR3)
- Her mother, Aline-Hyacinthe-Marie Pasquiou remarried Émile Langlois (iR3)
- They moved from Brittany, to the Jura, to Switzerland, to Limousin and at last settled in Étampes, south of Paris (iR3)
- 1849: her half-sister Louise was born (iR3;iR5). By several sources she is named Quivoron (R3;R5,p119;R8,p316;R73,p48), which would mean she carried the name of Marie her father and not her own father Émile Langlois. Louise will be Marie her favorite model (R5,p119;R8,p136).
- 1854-59: Marie Pasquioux dwelled at 72, Rue Saint-Jacques, Étampes (iR1;iR24)
- 1865-68: Marie Pasquiou-Quiveron dwelled at 1, Boulevard d’Enfer (iR1)
- 1867ca: meets Félix Bracquemond; they get engaged (iR5)
- 1869: Marie Pasquiou dwelled at 19, Rue de l’Université, Paris (iR1)
- 1869: Marie marries Félix Bracquemond (iR5;aR1;iR24)
- 1870: their child Pierre was born (iR22;R9)
- Marie Bracquemond gives drawing lessons at a school (R3)
- 1874-75: Marie Bracquemond lived in the villa Brancas, 3bis, Rue de Brancas, Sèvres (Seine-et-Oise) (iR1)
- 1876: exhibits at the ‘Exposition de l’Union centrale des arts décoratifs'(R3)
- 1878: exhibits at the Exposition Universal large carton panels depicting the ‘muses des Arts’ (iR3).
- 1881: exhibits 5 works at the Dudley Gallery in London (iR5;iR22).
- 1890: exhibited 9 etchings at the 2nd exhibition of the ‘Société des Peintres-graveurs français’ at Durand-Ruel (iR3).
- 1916/01/17: Marie Bracquemond died in Paris (iR3;iR22) or Sèvres (iR24;R9)
- Pierre Bracquemond wrote an unpublished biography: ‘La vie de Félix et Marie Bracquemond’ (iR3).
- 1919: posthumous exhibition at the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery, showing 91 paintings, 35 watercolours, 23 drawings and 29 etchings (aR11;iR19;iR4).
- 1926: her son Pierre would die; he also was an artist and exhibited at the Salon d’Automne in 1903 + 1905 and at the Salon (des Artistes Français) 1898 onwards (R240;iR19;aR12;R9;iR1)
My main sources are Rewald (1973=R1), Moffett (1986=R2), Walther (2013=R3,p650), Roe (2006=R4), Denvir (R5+R8), Schurr&Cabane (2008=R9,p122), Spiess (1992=R16,p81), Rappard-Boon (1993=R73), the Salon database (iR1), Wikipedia (iR3-5), RKD (iR24), Bénézit (iR69) and the additional references (aR…). For other general references (=R) see. My main sources (for the pictures) from the internet are the-Athenaeum (iR2), Wikimedia (iR6), WGI (iR22), and xx. For other references to internet sites (=iR) see. For other additional references (=aR) see below. See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.
Pfeiffer, Ingrid and others: Women Impressionists. Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, Eva Gonzalès, Marie Bracquemond. San Francisco, 2008. (=R168;see aR3)
Bouillon, J.P.: Félix et Marie Bracquemond. Mortagne-Chartres, 1972 (R73,p62).
- Vanished Impressionists 4 (short article on Marie Bracquemond and others on the eclecticlight.co = iR35)
- WGI (biography taken from Wikipedia)
- San Francisco Fine Arts Museum (info exposition 2008 In San Francisco and Frankfurt)
- Catalogue ‘Women Impressionists’ (2008; see)
- all-art.org (several pictures with limited information; biography from Wikipedia; not secured; advertisements)
- artsviewer.com (article and high quality pictures on Marie Bracquemont; not secured)
- tuttart.com (info and high quality pictures on Marie Bracquemond)
- pinterest.com (72 pictures of Marie Bracquemond; you have to be member for access; it is doubtfull if all works are of her;=iR64)
- https://www.jstor.org/stable/1357962 (article on Marie Bracquemond by Jean-Paul Bouillon and Elizabeth Kane; Woman’s Art Journal; Vol. 5, No. 2 (Autumn, 1984 – Winter, 1985), pp. 21-27; Published by: Woman’s Art Inc.
- ellesaussi.wordpress.com (french article on Marie Bracquemond)
- archive.org Catalogue des peintures, aquarelles, dessins et eaux-fortes de Marie Bracquemond at Berheim-Jeune in Paris in 1919 (=iR19)
- “Pierre Bracquemond.” In Database of Modern Exhibitions (DoME). European Paintings and Drawings 1905-1915. Last modified Jun 22, 2020. http://exhibitions.univie.ac.at/person/ulan/500030909 ;=iR261
- “Marie Bracquemond.” In Database of Modern Exhibitions (DoME). European Paintings and Drawings 1905-1915. Last modified Mar 17, 2021. http://exhibitions.univie.ac.at/person/ulan/500023058 =iR261; overview of contributions of Marie Bracquemond in exhibitions and auctions from 1905-1915; this is only the exhibition in Saint-Peterbourg in 1912, see R249.