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A historical reconstruction

1874 – 1886


The impressionists are known for the independent group expositions they held from 1874 – 1886 in Paris (see locations). Step into the shoes of the people who visited these expositions about 150 years ago. See the about 2000 art-works they saw and meet the 57 partaking-Impressionists. And enjoy the beauty of Impressionism !


What art-works were exhibited?
During the 8 expositions from 1874-1886 the partaking-Impressionists did exhibit around 2000 art-works. Still in books and websites on Impressionism you will find just a limited selection of these works. Of about 900 it is (quite) clear which art-works were exhibited (R90II). Of the other art-works it is unclear  (see also identification of paintings). Still we want to give an impression of these 1100 other art-works, as much as possible. Of the well known Impressionists, we want to give a total impressionism of (almost) all works they exhibited. These suggestions will be based on research, but will stay uncertain. Much more uncertain will be the suggestions done for the unknown partaking Impressionists. Still we want to give as much suggestions as possible. In this way we want to render a historical reconstruction of these 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions, that influenced art-history. We hope you can enjoy the beauty of them!
You will find the pictures in the sub-menu’s of the artists in the left (or bottom) menu. (This work is still in progress).


Who were the 57 partaking-Impressionists?

The best tribute one can pay to the memory of a talented artist is to make his work known.
F. C. de Syène (1879/05/01) (R90I,p243)

There were 56 partakers mentioned in the catalogues of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. It is known that in 1874 Comtesse de Luchaire and in 1886 Comtesse de Rambure also exhibited outside the catalogue (=hc). But probably the latter exhibited in 1876 and 1877 under the pseudonym Jacques François. So in total there were 56+2hc-1=57 partakers. In the left (or bottom) menu  you will find short biographies of all these artists. (Still in progress)
When you look in books and on websites about Impressionism, you will find a lot of information and pictures of (according to Duret=R142) the 5 key Impressionists: Monet, Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley. And also of Caillebotte and Cassatt and of Degas (who was more a Realist), Cézanne and Gauguin (who were more Post-Impressionists), Seurat and Signac (who were Neo-Impressionists) and also of Manet, who never joined the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions and just sometimes used an impressionist painting style. In these sources you will hardly find information and pictures of the other 45 partakers of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. This sadly was also the case in the centennial exhibition of 1974 (R87), the centennial of 1986 (R2) and even in the additional catalogue of Berson (R90II).


2024: Rehabilitation of 45 forgotten Impressionists?
Some call all these other partakers incapable amateur-painters or retarded Salon-painters (R90I,p19;R87,p270). But is this true? A goal of this website is to rehabilitate all those other partakers and to show as much pictures as possible of them, so that you can judge for yourself: Are their art-works beautiful or not? And: Were they Realists, Pre-Impressionists, Impressionists or something else?
I hope that in exhibitions that will be organised in 2024 (150 years after the 1st impressionist exposition) justice will be done to Rouart, Guillaumin, Tillot, Cals, Vignon, Zandomeneghi, Levert, Forain, who frequently did partake in the expositions. But also to Béliard, Boudin, Marie Bracquemond, Colin, Cordey, Lebourg, Lépine, Maureau, De Nittis, Piette, Schuffenecker, who all made beautiful impressionist works.


All about the 8 impressionist expositions:
On this website, in the top menu, you will find all kinds of information about the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions held in Paris from 1874-1886, including Why are they called ‘impressionist’ expositions? You will also find per year who were the partakers, the catalogues and in the future we will render several overviews.


Were the partakers all Impressionists?
The key question is: were all these 57 partakers of the expositions from 1874-86 Impressionists? We answer this question for all the 57 partakers in the left (or bottom) menu. We distinguish between Impressionism as an art-movement in France from about 1860-1886 and Impressionism as a painting style. See also in the top menu under Impressionism. But why were the Impressionists called ‘impressionists’ anyway, see?
In the future we will answer also the following questions: Who were the main Impressionists? Impressionists can also be seen as circles of friends, who was part of which circle? What were meeting places? When and where did they have contacts, we want to give a chronology?


-/- Salon:
A main caracteristic of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions was, that they were independent of the Paris Salon. The Salon was a large, yearly exhibition in Paris. Without the Paris Salon it was hard to get yourself known as painter and to sell your pictures, see top menu. Many books and websites suggests that the Impressionists were mostly rejected for the Salon and that they were opposed to it. But in reality the relationship of many Impressionists with the Salon was ambivalent. Many partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions often did exhibit at the Salon. Even with beautiful impressionist paintings, see for example Sisley.
In the future you will find in the left (or bottom) menu what works the Impressionists did exhibit at the Salon and its successor the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français (=SdAF). Of a few partaking Impressionists this you can already see. In the future I will also render general information about the Salon in the top menu.


-/- Other exhibitions:
Apart the Salon and their own expositions, the Impressionists had other possibilities to exhibit their works. In the future you will find in the left (or bottom) menu what paintings they exhibited at other expositions. In the future you will also find in the top menu general information of the other exhibitions: In Paris: at La Vie Moderne; at the galleries of Durand-Ruel and Georges Petit; at the Salon des Independants; at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts; at the Salon d’Automne; at regional exhibitions; in Brussels: at the exhibitions of Les XX and La Libre Esthétique; at other internationale exhibitions. Very interesting is to see who of the partakers also did exhibited at the so called (international) impressionist exhibitions.


-/- Surroundings
The Impressionists didn’t live on an island, so in the future I want to give short information about their surroundings. About the Barbizon painters and other pre-impressionists who inspired them. About the art-dealer Durand-Ruel who made the impressionists famous. About the para-Impressionists, who also were invited to partake in the ‘impressionist’ expositions and who used elements of the impressionist painting style.


The information on this website is accounted for:
The information on this website is based on extended research. I prudently make clear the sources I have used, because I like to honour these sources. It will also give you the possibility to check my assertions and to continue your personal research. In the general references (=R) you find the sources that are used in books; you find references to internet pages (=iR) that are used; you find the -/- Musea where the paintings are exhibited (=M), see in the top menu the sub-menu’s under ‘general account’. In the blog you can follow the development of the website, which pages were created and altered.
For a good understanding of this website, it is recommanded to first read the practical hints and the meaning of the abbreviations (see). And also to read the explanation of the subscription that is used below the paintings.


Free, sorted information and pictures:
There are many webpages about Impressionism and the Impressionist artists. Many pages are with (irritating) advertisements. Many pages are limited to the well-known Impressionists. On many websites the information is fragmented. On many webpages the information about the pictures is limited or unclear. On many webpages the used sources are not indicated.
On this website you will find free, sorted information about Impressionism and the impressionist artists (also of the unknown). My aim is to render at least 3000 pictures. My mission is that this information and the beauty of these pictures are accessible for everyone in the world. Also for those who are not able to buy (several) books, go to museums and exhibitions and travel around the world to Paris or New York.
If you want to know more about Impressionism, you will find on this website an abundance of links (in a sorted way). To more pictures (see for example: iR49-iR58); to digital books (R130-139); to online Catalogues Raisonnés (iR180-iR194); to online old publications (R140-159); to online catalogues of auctions and exhibitions (R230-R259); and much more, see the general references (=Rx) and the internet references (=iRx).


Please share pictures, information and reactions:
Many works of the (unknown) Impressionists are in private collections. Of these works there are often no pictures available are only of poor quality. If you have (better) pictures of these lesser known works, please share them with me. Of the unknown Impressionists there is also limited information available. Please share information, that is not (easy) to be found on the internet. I will use the pictures and information to complete this website. Please also share your reactions on this website. Maybe you notice some of the information is not correct or complete. Maybe you have remarks on the lay-out, the readability and workability of this website.  Maybe you just want to share your reaction. For all these reactions you can use the email you will find on the general account. Thanks!


Please donate:
The making of this website costs money and a lot of time. If you want to contribute to the realisation of this website please make a donation. You can use the button with the European bankpayment logos and the PayPall botton in the top of the left menu (or bottom menu). For more info see link to the general account.


Future plans:
I have many ideas for the future:

  • giving lectures in the Netherlands and France
  • giving walking tours in Paris and surroundings; walking in the steps of the Impressionists, where they did live and paint?
  • uploading pictures of the Impressionists to Google-maps on the exact location of where they were painted.
  • make thematical overviews of the art-works of the unknown Impressionists; combining the less than 100 pictures that can be found of these art-works, with the titles that are known from exhibitions, auctions, books, etc. See for example Astruc and Cordey.
  • making a historical reconstruction of what impressionist works were exhibited at the Salon and its successor the Salon de la Société des Artistes-Français from 1874-1886.
  • creating the website para.impressionism.nl
  • make a historical reconstruction of the international impressionist exhibitions from 1882-1914. What artists did partake? What works were exhibited? Creating the website international.impressionism.nl
  • publish online a serie of short educational video’s with as main theme: new impressions of Impressionism.
  • 2024: showing at exhibitions about Impressionism slideshows that give an extended impression of what works were exhibited at the 8 ‘impressionists’ expositions held in Paris from 1874-86
  • 2024: giving series of lectures about the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions
  • creating a website neo.impressionism.nl
    making a historical reconstruction of the exhibitions of Les XX in Brussels from 1883-1893. What artists did partake? What works were exhibited?
    making a historical reconstruction of the exhibitions of the Salon des Indépendants from 1884-1893. What artists did partake? What works were exhibited?
  • establish a foundation in which to house all these activities



Start enjoying !




Recommanded citation: “Impressionism: a historical reconstruction of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions (1874-1886). Last modified 2022/03/05. https://www.impressionism.nl/ .”