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the predecessors


On this page you will find (in alphabetical order) short info on artists, the were predecessors of the ‘impressionists’. Predecessor in time, in the sense that most were born before 1840 and most were already active as artist before most ‘impressionists’ became active. Predecessor in the sense they were landscape painters and (partly) painted en-plein-air and were a source of inspiration for the ‘impressionists’. Namely they were known as Barbizon painters (namely Corot) and painters from the School of Honfleur (namely Jongkind). Predecessor in the sense they depicted every day life. Many of them can be seen as Realist painters (namely Courbet). Some of the pre-impressionists I describe on the pages concerning Realism and Naturalism. I discern them from the para-impressionists, who had connections with the ‘impressionists’ and were active during the same period.


Bonheur, Rosa (1822-99):
Is mainly seen as a Realist landscapist, see link.

Bonvin, François (1817-87):
Pupil at the Académie Suisse. Genre painter. Examened the light, in that sence he was a Pré-Impressionist. Influenced Manet. (R16,p13).

Courbet, Gustave (1819-77):
Is mainly seen as a Realist, see seperate page.
Sources: R16,p26-31.

Daumier, Honoré (1808-79):
Is mainly seen as a Realist, see link.
Sources: R16,p34/5.

Dubourg, Louis-Alexandre (1821-91):
He was the first curator of the Museum in Honfleur, his hometown. Promoted the painting en-plein-air. Connections with Boudin. Part of the School of Honfleur. (R16,p131).

Gudin, Jean-Antoine-Théodore (1802-80):
Pupil of Girodet-Trioson. Received a 2nd class medal at the Salon in 1824 (Marine) and a 1st class in 1848. At the Exposition Universelle of 1855 he exhibited no less than 25 paintings, many of the titles depicted locations and atmospherical indications. Made many marines (including war scenes), exhibited 13 of them at the Salon of 1846. Received several public commissions.
Sources: iR1; R9,p351.

Guigou, Paul-Camille (1834-1871):
Influenced by Courbet. Exhibited at all the Salons from 1863-71. Depicted landscapes in the Provence. (R16,p158).

Guys, Constantin (1802-92):
Frenchman born in Holland. Connections with Manet. Painted everyday life in Paris. Used large surfaces in his paintings in which he depicted the light. (R16,p163)

Jongkind, Johan Barthold (1819-91):
One of the most important Pre-Impressionists. See separate page.

Ribot, Théodule (1823-91):
1861 debut at the Salon; refused in 1869. Used clair-obscure effects. Contacts with ‘impressionists’, namely Boudin (starting in 1861) and Monet. Ribot was involved in initiatives for (more) independant exhibitions. In 1859 there was an exposition of refused at the atelier of Bonvin↑, with works of Legros, (Courbet?), Ribot, Whistler and Fatin-Latour (R88). Probably this is the same as the ‘Champs de Mars Salon’ founded by Théodule Ribot (1823-91) (iR69). In 1873 Ribot signed a petition to the Minister of Fine Arts requesting to render the right to vote for the election of the jury to all the artists that exhibited the year before (at the Salon). (R9,p618)

Rochenoire, Jules de la (1825-99):
Born as Charles Julien de la Rochenoire in Le Havre. Pupil of Cogniet, Corot, Gleyre and Troyon. Friend of Daubigny and Manet. In London in 1870/71 contacts with Daubigny, Monet and Pissarro. Exhibited very regularly at the Salon from 1857 till at least 1886. In 1870 he took part in a campain to include Corot, Courbet, Daubigny, Daumier, Manet and others in the jury of the Salon. Made many landscapes in Normandy, Calvados and Bléville.
Sources: R9,p441; iR1. More info and pictures: . Note: also listed as La Rochenoire.



My main sources are Moffett (1886=R2), Walther (2013=R3), Denvir (1993=R5), Schurr & Cabanne (2008=R9), Adams (1994=R59), Monneret (1978-81=R88), Boime (R287), Sillevis (1985=R290). See the link for other general References (=Rx) and to the internet references (=iRx).



Recommanded citation: “Pre-Impressionism: pre-impressionists, predecessors. Last modified 2023/08/27.

Note: additional info will follow.