Eugène Boudin (1824-1898)
Was Boudin an Impressionist?
Boudin was an inspirator for Monet:
In 1858 Boudin meets Monet and inspires him to paint en-plein-air (R3;R116); other sources mention they met around 1856/7 (iR3;iR22). They were life long friends (iR3).
Boudin at the Salon:
Receives admiration of Baudelaire for his pastels exhibited at the Salon of 1859 (R3;iR65;iR3), which was his debut (iR1;R116). From 1864-89 Boudin exhibited almost yearly at the Salon (iR1). After 1874 a big succes at the Salon (R3). 1881: receives a bronze medal (iR3). 1883: awarded a second class medal (aR1). Exhibits hors concours in 1885-89 (iR1). From 1890-97 Boudin exhibits at the Société National des Beaux-Arts, except 1896 (iR1;R116). In 1888 + 92 works of Boudin were bought by the State (R116).
From 1890-96 there was a Mlle Alice-H. Boudin, born in La Charité (Nièvre) who exhibited etchings.
Boudin only joined the 1st ‘impressionist’ exposition:
At the 1st ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1874 Boudin showed 13 works, including 4 watercolours and 6 pastels (catalogue numbers 17-24).
Boudin is reviewed / named by at least 7 art-critics. Castagnary (1874/04/29) writes that Boudin has commanded respect for years and his works are fought over at very high prices. (R2,p125). Hervilly writes that Boudin showed ‘the fine flower of his research and daring talent’. (R87,p230).
See link for his -/-pictures. See link for an -/-account.
Boudin as an artist:
1844-6ca: contacts with Couture, Isabey, Millet and Troyon (in his own shop where he framed pictures (iR3;R161;iR65;aR1). Boudin studied at the École des Beaux-Arts from 1851-3 (R3). The Salon database doesn’t mention one of his teachers. One source mentions that Boudin was inspired by the plein-air painting of Corot (R3,p649). Dayez mentions that he received advice of Isabey and Troyon and was inspired by Corot, Courbet and most of all by Jongkind (R87).
Many of his works depict the beach, the sea and the sky. He tries to render the changings in the atmosphere (R87). He always was caught by the light, which was the dominating element in his works (R74). He did not render volume, but light reflections (R74). Baudelaire reviewed that one could guess the season, the hour and the wind direction in his paintings (R74). He was a precursor of the Impressionists (R74). Some state that he was the first who suggested to paint en-plein-air (iR22), what is disputable see. Others mentions he was inspired to do so by Jongkind (iR3).
Boudin was the teacher of Louis Braquaval (iR24). He influenced several artists like Cals, Louis-Alexandre Dubourg (iR24).
L0uis Eugène Boudin, a short biography:
- 1824/07/12: Louis-Eugène Boudin was born in Honfleur (iR24;R161;iR1;R3;R74;iR22;iR3;aR1)
- His father had been a sailor and than worked on a ferry (aR1;R161;R3)
- 1835: the family moves to Le Havre; his father opened a store (iR3;R161;R3;iR22;aR1)
- 1846: started painting full-time (iR3)
- 1847: travels to Paris (R161;R3;iR22;iR3;aR1)
- 1848-51: travels through the north of France and Belgium (iR24;R161;R3;iR3)
- 1850: exhibits two works at the ‘Société des amis des arts du Havre’ and receives a scolarship (R3;R161;iR22;iR3)
- 1851-3: studies at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris (R3;R116); some sources mention he did not apparently engage in the studies and remained largely self-taught (aR1).
- 1854: returns to Le Havre and stays at Saint-Siméon farm (run by Mère Toutain) in Honfleur (R116). some sources claim he started an art centre here, visited by Monet, Bazille, Jongkind, (R22)
- inspired by the plein-air painting of Corot (R3,p649)
- 1859: lives at 10, Rue de la Halle, Le Havre (iR1)
- 1859: meets Courbet and Baudelaire (R116;R3;iR22;iR3)
- 1859: lives at 8, boulevard Montmartre (R116)
- 1860ca: settled in Honfleur (R87;iR24)
frequently visits the group of artists at the farm Saint-Siméon (R87)
- 1861/winter: stays at 66,Rue Pigalle, Paris (R116)
- 1861: worked for Troyon (R116;aR1)
- 1861: met Corot (R116).
- 1862: frequent stay in Trouville (R3)
- 1862: start friendship with Jongkind (R116;aR1)
- 1863: married Marie-Ane Guédès (R116).
- 1863: lives at 27, Avenue Trudaine, Paris (R116).
- 1863: death of his father (R116)
- 1864: lives at 14, Rue Durantin, Paris (Montmartre) (iR1;R116).
- 1864-8: lives at 31, Rue Fontaine(-Saint-Georges), Paris (iR1;R116).
- 1867: took part at the Exposition Universelle (R116)
- 1867: stay in London (R116).
- 1868: decorative painting for a castle in Bourdainville (R3).
- 1869-76: studio at 31, Rue Saint-Lazare, Paris (R116;iR1).
- 1870/1: stay in Brussels; (R3)
- 1871: his mother died (R116)
- 1872-90: travels to Belgium and Holland (R116;R3;iR24)
- 1877-81: studio at 54, Rue Lamartine, Paris (R116;iR1).
- 1881: Durand-Ruel becomes his main art-dealer (R116;R3;R87)
- 1882-97: dwells at 11, Place Vintimille, Paris (in 1890 (wrongly) noted as no.13) (iR1;R116).
- 1883: solo exhibition at Durand-Ruel (R87;R116;iR22;aR1)
- 1884: built ‘Villa des Ajoncs’ at Rue Olliffe, Deauville (R116;R3)
- 1886: exhibits at the large exhibition in New York by Durand-Ruel ‘the impressionists from Paris’ (R116)
- 1889: death of his wife (R116)
- 1889: receives a golden medal at the Exposition Universelle (iR24;R116;R3;R74;iR3;iR22).
- 1889 + 90 + 91: solo exhibitions at Durand-Ruel (R87;R116)
- 1890 onwards: spends the winter in the south of France (aR1)
- 1892: made Chevalier de Legion d’Honneur (iR24;R116;R74;iR3;iR22)
- 1892+94+95: stay in Venice (R116;R3;iR3;iR22)
- 1895: Travels to the Côte d’Azur (R116;R3). Other sources mention he did so in 1885 (aR1).
- 1898/08/08: Boudin died in his villa in Deauville (iR24;R116;R74;iR3;aR1)
- 1898: buried at the Saint-Vincent cemetery in Montmartre (R116).
- 1898/12: posthumous exhibition in New York by Durand-Ruel (R116)
- 1899/01/09: major retrospective with 457 works at the École des Beaux-Arts (iR65;R116)
- 1899/03/20: auction at Hôtel Drouot of the contents of Boudin’s studio, including 125 paintings, 98ca watercolours and 56ca pastels and drawings; forward by Arsène Alexandre (iR65;R116).
- 1900: there were 3 works of Boudin exhibited at the World’s Fair (iR107)
- There have been several larger exhibitions after his death (iR24)
- 2018: exhibition Monet / Boudin in the Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza in Madrid (aR3)
My main sources are Bergeret-Gourbin (2014=R51) & Setz (1991=R161,p91/2). Other main sources are: Rewald (1973, R1), Moffett (1986, R2), Walther (2013, R3,p649), Spiess (R16,px), Maillard (1968=R74), Dayez (1974,R87,p230), the Salon database (iR1), Wikipedia (iR3), WGI (iR22), RKD (iR24), Marques (iR65) and the additional references (=aRx; see below). For other general references (=R) see. My main sources (for the pictures) from the internet are Wikimedia (iR6), Joconde (iR23), gallica.bnf.fr (=iR40), the additional references (=aR; see below) and Google images (iR10). The-athenaeum (iR2). For other references to internet sites (=iR) see. See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.
For further reading see:
Schmidt, Robert: Catalogue Raisonné (=R122)
Alexandre, Arsène: L’Oeuvre d’Eugène Boudin. Paris, 1899.
Cahen, Gustave: Eugène Boudin; sa vie et son oeuvre. Paris, 1900 (iR24;iR65).
Bénézit (1976,=R75), Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon (R81) (iR60).
Chaleil, Frédéric: Eugène Boudin par ses contemporains. Paris, 2013 (iR24)
The father of Impressionism; Eugène Boudin and his circle. London, 2016 (iR24).
Additional references (=aRx):
- Vanished French Impressionist 2 (article of the eclecticlight on Boudin and others;=iR35)
- eugeneboudin.org (very many pictures without information with irritating pop-ups)
- mutualart.com (article on the Monet/Boudin exhibition in Madrid in 2018=iR11)
- mutualart.com (article from Art-Daily (2018/08/19) on the same exhibition=iR11)