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19th century

an overview


Impressionism wasn’t the only art-movement in France in the 19th century (and the beginning of the 20th century). On this page you will find an overview on these art-movements that were dominant before, during and after Impressionism displayed itself. Often you will be linked to separate pages with extended info on that art-movement. Sometimes you will find short info on an art-movement on this page.


Art-movement rendering namely ancient Greek and Roman scenes and mythological themes. Important representatives were David and Ingres. See separate page.

The Romanticists rendered namely dramatic scenes displaying strong emotions. Delacroix was the most important representative. See separate page.

Genre panting:

Landscape painting:
Landscape painting can be seen as a form of genre painting, in this sense it is not an art-movement. In England Bonington, Constable and Turner were important representatives. In Italy you had the ‘Macchiaioli’ (and the ‘Scuola di Resina’) of which Giuseppe de Nittis and Zandomeneghi had been part. In France you had the school of Barbizon (or Fontainebleau) and the school of Honfleur. Important representatives were Corot and Jongkind. These landscape painters are also called Pre-Impressionists, because they had a main influence on the Impressionists. See also Pre-Impressionism.

See separate page.

See separate page.

See separate page.

Orientalism also can be seen as a form of genre painting. It renders (imagened) scenes from the Middle East. It was namely practised by Neo-Classicist and Romantist artists. For the Salon of 1872 an oriental scene of Renoir was rejected.

Also called Pointilism, Divisionism, Scientifique Impressionism. It started with Seurat and Signac was the most important custodian. See separate page. See also neo-impressionist artists.

Including the School of Pont Aven, Cloisonism, Synthetism and Les Nabis. See separate page.

Post-Impressionism wasn’t an art-movement. It was a collective term including important artists (namely Cézanne, Gauguin and Van Gogh) that would influence later art-movements. See separate page. See also post-impressionist artists.

In 1901 Camille Mauclair (1872-1945) introduced this term. The main interest of the Intimists was their own intimite life by portraying their own family members. They depicted banal yet personal domestic interior scenes, characterized by calm, silent atmospheres (often in the evening), depciting a moment of reading, daydreaming or otherwise. Notably the following artists made intimist paintings: Bonnard, Vallotton, Vuillard and Henri le Sidaner. Other painters had an intimist phase. In 1905 the ‘Ensemble d’Intimistes’ (or Peintres d’Intérieurs) held their first exhibition. There were 20 partakers (including Bonnard, Matisse, Vuillard) showing 61 art-works.
Sources + additional info: WikiPedia (iR3; iR4); article of Katia Papandreopoulou (in Histoire de l’art no.71, 2013/12; see link to PDF).
Catalogue: 1905/02/10-25, 1st exposition:  “Première exposition d’Ensemble d’Intimistes (Peintres d’Intérieurs).” In Database of Modern Exhibitions (DoME). European Paintings and Drawings 1905-1915. Last modified Jul 27, 2020. =R238=iR216.


Emerged from the Salon d’Automne of 1905. Important representative was Matisse. See separate page.





Recommanded citation: “Meta-Impressionism: art-movements, 19th century in France an overview. Last modified 2022/06/10.

Note: Additional info and pictures will be added.