On this webpage you will find short info about art movements that were related to the impressionists in a sort of chronological order. For the English landscapists, the Barbizon-painters and other Pre-Impressionists see .   See here for the general references (=R) and here for references to internet pages (=iR). Most of the pictures come from the-athenaeum database (=iR2). I also link to this site for more pictures of an artist. For more info I mostly link to Wikipedia (=iR3) and WGI (=iR21). For info on the subscription of the paintings see.



School of Pont-Aven / Cloisonnism:

Pont-Aven is a small village in Brittany. Many painters dwelled there. Gauguin visited it frequently from 1886-89 and became the leader of the Pont-Aven school. Important representatives: Gauguin, Emile Bernard (1868-1941), Louis Anquetin (1861-1932), Charles Laval, Armand Séguin. Bernard came with the idea of planes of colours separated by black or blue lines, with leaving out details. Gauguin worked it out and became the head of the group.


Gauguin, 1888, The Vision after the Sermon (Jacob Wrestling the Angel), 73×92, SNG Edinburgh (iR2)

Bernard, 1888, Apple Pickers at Pont-Aven, 76×62, private (iR2)

Seguin, 1891, Gooseherd at Pont-Aven, 119×60, private (iR2)


Les Nabis:

Formed in 1888 and disintegrated around 1900. Les Nabis means prophets. The group was based on friendships established during their study at Académie Julian. The group was inspired by Theosophy. First Nabis-painting was ‘The Talisman’ of Sérusier. (R55, p.128). Important representatives: Paul Sérusier, Maurice Denis, Emile Bernard, Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), Paul Ranson; Edouard Vuillard, Félix Valloton, Ker-Xavier Roussel, Georges Lacombe; Aristide Maillol; Ibels; Louis Valtat. Inspired by Cloisonnism they used bright colours, curved lines (Denis) and left out perspective (Bonnard + Vuillard) (R57, p45-55).


Sérusier, 1888, The Talisman, 27×22, Orsay (iR2)

Denis, 1893, (The Seasons Series) April, 36×61, K-M Otterlo (iR2)

Lacombe, 1894ca, The Ages of Life, 151×240, MPP Geneva (iR2)



Central in Symbolism is not one painting style but the idea to render the transcedent world by Symbols; to render the essence of things which is beyond reality. They rendered archaic dreams, subconscious phantasies and obsessions  and also the perverse, macabre and occult. Themes they painted were legends, myths,  allegories and also the ‘femme-fatale’ (especially Salomé). The name was emerged by Moréas in 1886/09/18. Some exhibited in the Salon-de-la-Rose+Croix (1892-97) (R57;iR1). Some date Symbolism from 1866-1914 others from 1880-1900, which are clearly the peak years. Forerunners were William Blake, J.H. Füssli, Goya, Puvis de Chavannes. Important representatives were Gustave Moreau, Odilon Redon, The Nabis, The Pre-Raphaelites, Fernand Khnopff, Arnold Böcklin, James Ensor, Jean Delville, William Degouve de Nuncques, Franz von Stuck, Carlos Schwabe, Jan Toorop, Ferdinand Hodler. Some also include Edvard Munch, Gustave Klimt, Henri Rousseau.
Sources: Monneret (1978-81=R88II,p428-439).

Degouve de Nuncques, 1894, The Angels of Night, 48×60, K-M Otterlo (iR2)

Hodler, 1897, The Dream, 95×65, Kh Zurich (iR2)

Schwabe, 1895-1900, The Grave Digger’s Death, 77×55, Louvre (iR2)