Post-Impressionist artists

Post-Impressionism

Post-Impressionist artists

an overview

 

Introduction:
On this page you will find an overview of the most important Post-Impressionist artists. The most important are Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh, see also the starting page. The first two were also partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions, in the future I will make a seperate page on Vincent van Gogh. Many of the Post-Impressionists belonged to the Symbolist art-mouvements, like the School of Pont-Aven, Cloissonism, Synthetism, Les Nabis and Symbolism. Several of them exhibited at Volpini in 1889, at the Expositions Impressionnistes et Symbolistes, at the Salon de la Rose+Croix.
I will render the Post-Impressionists in an alphabetical order. See link for Néo-Impressionist artists.

 

Edmond Aman-Jean (1858-1936):
Shared an appartment with Seurat and Ernest Laurent, all attended the studio of Henri Lehmann around 1878 (R297,p17/18). Shared a studio with Seurat from 1881-88. He was mainly a figure painter / portraitist. Receives a 3rd class medal at the Salon (SdAF) in 1883, a second class medal at the Exposition Universelle of 1889 and a first class in 1900. Is especially known for his portraits. Participated in the first two exhibitions of the Salon de la Rose+Croix. Exhibits at the SNBA (1892), the Société Internationale at Georges Petit (1896) and at the expositions of the Société Nouvelle. Founder of the Salon des Tuilleries (1923).
Sources: R298,p28; R297,p270; see links for info + pictures on the internet (iR3;iR4;iR6;iR23).

Louis Anquetin (1861-1932):
Attended the studios of Bonnat (1882) and Cormon (1883-85), where he passes as the most gifted painter. Connections with Bernard↓, Laval↓, Toulouse-Lautrec and Van Gogh. Meets Signac 1887/03/12. One of the first to paint in a cloisonnist style (1887). Exhibits at the Salon des Indépendants (1888+91), at Volpini (1889) and several times at the Expositions Impressionnistes et Symbolistes and at the SNBA.
Sources: R181,p593/4; see links for info + pictures on the internet: in English (iR3), in French (iR4), pictures (iR6), at Joconde (iR23).

 

Émile Bernard (1868-1941):
Attended the studio of Cormon (1884 till 1886/04/06) with Anquetin↑, Toulouse-Lautrec and Vincent van Gogh. In his early years he experimented with Impressionism and Néo-Impressionism. In 1887 Bernard attended the Académie Julian (1887), but most sources don’t connect him to Les Nabis, which emerged from pupils of the Académie Julian in 1888. Bernard is related to the school of Pont-Aven, inspired by Anquetin↑ he was one of the first to paint in a Cloisonnist style (1887), developed with Gauguin Synthetism (1888). Soon afterwards others saw Gauguin is the great inspirator, a vision Bernard disputed. Contemporary art-historian acknowledge Bernard his share in the development of Synthetism, but regard his painting qualities as inferior (R88;R74,p293). Bernard was connected with Anquetin↑, Cézanne (1904 onwards), Gauguin (1886-1891), Schuffenecker (since 1886?), Signac (around 1886), Toulouse-Lautrec and Vincent van Gogh (1887-90). Exhibits at at Volpini (1889), at the first two Expositions Impressionnistes et Symbolistes, at the Salon de la Rose+Croix. Travelled in foreigh countries from 1893-1904. After that he applies a more traditional form of art. He was also an art-critic and an art-theoretician. In his late years he was a teacher at the École des Beaux-Arts.
Publications:
Notes sur l’École dite de Pont-Aven. In Mercure de France, December 1903. (R181II,p628).
Mémoire pour l’histoire du Symbolisme pictural en 1890. In Maintenant no.3, 1919/08/26. (R181II,p469+628)
‘Quelques souvenirs inédits sur l’artiste peintre Paul Gauguin et ses compagnons lors de leur séjours à Pont-Aven et au Pouldu’
1: ‘Quelques souvenirs de Pont-Aven (1888) (1939/02/23).
2: ‘L’école symboliste ou synthétique’ (1939/03/05).
3: ‘La première manifestation synthétiste’ (1939/03/12). (R181II,p628)
Sources: R298,p33; R88I,p48-50; R9,p78/79; R181,p593+598/9; see links for info + pictures on the internet: WikiPedia (iR3), in French (iR4), Wikimedia (iR6), Joconde (iR23). Catalogue Raisonné by Luthi (1982).

Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947):
Attended the Académie Julian, had contacts with Denis↓, Ranson↓, Roussel↓, Sérusier↓, Vallotton↓ and Vuillard↓. Member of Les Nabis. Shared sinces 1890 a studio with Denis↓ and Vuillard↓. Also maked decorative art. Exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants (1891), at Durand-Ruel (1896), the Salon d’Automne (1911), at Bernheim-Jeune (1913). Was professor at the Académie Ranson↓ (R298,176). Moved in 1925 to Cannet and would die here in 1947.
Sources: Negri (1974=R289,p87-89+19-21); Catalogue Raisonné by Dauberville (1965=R107); see links for info + pictures on the internet: Wikipedia (iR3); in French (iR4), Wikimedia (iR6), Joconde (iR23).

Maurice Denis (1870-1943):
In his youth connections with Vuillard↓ en Roussel↓. Early 1888 at the  Académie Julian; connections with Bonnard↑, Ranson↓ and Sérusier↓. Member of Les Nabis. Exhibits at the Salon des Indépendants, with the Expositions Impressionnistes et Symbolistes (1891-93?), the SNBA (1895 onwards), Les XX, La Libre Esthétique and the Secession (1903). Also a writer and an art-theoretician. From 1908-22 professor at the Académie Ranson↓.
Publications:
Théories (1890-1910); Du Symbolisme et de Gauguin vers un nouvel ordre classique’; Paris, 1912. (R49,p93).
‘L’époque du symbolisme’ in Gazette des Beaux-Arts in 1934 (R181II,p629).
Sources: R298,p55; Negri (1974=R289,p89-90); R300,p144; R181,p608; see links for info + pictures on the internet: Wikipedia (iR3); Wikimedia (iR6); Joconde (iR23)

Georges de Feure (1868-1943):
Pseudonym of Georges Joseph van Sluijters. Pupil of Chéret. Also decorative art, partly seen as the best works of Art Nouveau. Exhibited at the Expositions Impressionnistes et Symbolistes (1892), the Salon de la Rose+Croix (1893+94), the SNBA (1894 onwards).
Sources: R298,p49; see links for info + pictures on the internet: WikiPedia (iR3), in French (iR4).

 

Charles Filiger (1863-1928):
Connections with Bernard↑, Gauguin, Schuffenecker and Sérusier↓. July 1889 in Pouldu. Exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants (1889+90), Les XX (1891), the Salon de la Rose+Croix (1892), at Durand-Ruel (1899).
Sources: R298,p69; see links for info + pictures on the internet: WikiPedia (iR3); in French (iR4); WikiMedia (iR6).

Henri-Gabriel Ibels (1867-1936):
Member of Les Nabis from the foundation in 1888, but will stay a side figure. He was more an illustrater than a painter. Exhibits with the Expositions Impressionnistes et Symbolistes (1891-94?).
Sources: Negri (1974=R289,p90+16); see links for info + pictures on the internet: WikiPedia (iR3); in French (iR4); WikiMedia (iR6).

 

George Lacombe (1868-1916):
Attended the Académie Julian, met Sérusier↓ (in 1892) and became member of Les Nabis. He also was a sculptor (in wood).
Sources: R298,p107; Negri (1974=R289,p90+16); see links for info + pictures on the internet: WikiPedia (iR3), in French (iR4); WikiMedia (iR6).

Charles Laval (1861-94):
Attended the studios of Bonnat and Cormon. Connections with Anquetin↑, Bernard↑, Toulouse-Lautrec. Connected with the school of Pont-Aven and with Synthetism. After their meeting in Pont-Aven in the Summer of 1886, Gauguin became his master. In 1887 he went with Gauguin to Martinique, but returned several months later than Gauguin in 1888. Several works, first attributed to Gauguin, are now assumed to be made by Laval. Already in 1887 he produced works in a more Cloisonnist style and was ahead of Gauguin, who only did so after his meeting with Bernard↑. In 1889 he was with Gauguin in Pouldu. April 1890 he got engaged with Madeleine, the sister of Émile Bernard↑, which caused a break up in the relation with Gauguin, who also felt for her. Exhibited at the Salon (SdAF) (1880 onwards) and at Volpini (1889). Died young at the age of 33 in 1894.
Sources: R181II,p306-308; see links for info + pictures on the internet: in English (iR3), in French (iR4), pictures (iR6).

Aristide Maillol (1861-1944):
Attends the École des Beaux-Arts; pupil of Gérôme and Cabanel. Connections with Georges Daniel de Monfreid, Gauguin and later Denis↑. Member of Les Nabis since 1893. Mainly a sculpture. Made also decorative art and Gobelins. Exhibits at the SNBA (1894-1903), at La Libre Esthétique (1894?+98), with the Expositions Impressionnistes et Symbolistes (only 1895?) and the Salon d’Automne (1904 onwards). Was professor at the Académie Ranson↓ (R298,176).
Sources: R298,p115; Negri (1974=R289,p91); see links for info + pictures on the internet: WikiPedia (iR3), in French (iR4), WikiMedia (iR6), Joconde (iR23).

 

Charles Maurin (1856-1914):
Attends the École des Beaux-Arts (in 1877) and the studios of Lefebvre, Boulanger and Académie Julian. Exhibits at the Salon (SdAF) (1882-90), the Salon des Indépendants (1887 onwards), the Salon de la Rose+Croix (in 1892+95+97), at La Libre Esthétique (1895+97). Connections with Vallotton↓. Used several techniques.
Sources: R298,p127; see links for info + pictures on the internet: WikiPedia (iR3), in French (iR4), WikiMedia (iR6), Joconde (iR23).

 

Alphonse Osbert (1857-1939):
Attends the the École des Beaux-Arts; pupil of Lehmann, Cormon and Bonnat. Influenced by Puvis de Chavannes, Séon↓ and Seurat. Exhibits at the Expositions Impressionnistes et Symbolistes (6th+7th expo), the Salon de la Rose+Croix.
Sources: R298,p159; see links for info + pictures on the internet: WikiPedia (iR3), in French (iR4), Joconde (iR23).

 

Paul Ranson (1861-1909):
(Note: Some sources say he was born in 1864.) In 1888 pupil at the Académie Julian. Member of Les Nabis, who later would gather every Saturday in his studio called the ’temple’ at Montparnasse. Exhibits at the Expositions Impressionnistes et Symbolistes (1891-97?), the Salon des Indépendants (1892 + 1900-03), the SNBA (1895), La Libre Esthétique (1894+95+98). In 1908 founder of the Académie Ranson.
Sources: R298,p176; Negri (1974=R289,p91); see links for info + pictures on the internet: Wikipedia (iR3); in French (iR4);

 

Ker-Xavier Roussel (1867-1944):
Since his youth connection with Vuillard↓, who in 1893 becomes his brother-in-law. Attends the Académie Julian. Later member of Les Nabis, who also gather in his villa La Jacanelle in L’Étang-la-Ville. Exhibits with the Expositions Impressionnistes et Symbolistes (1893?-96?).
Sources: Negri (1974=R289,p92); see links for info + pictures on the internet: Wikipedia (iR3); Wikimedia (iR6).

 

Alexandre Séon (1855-1917):
Pupil and co-worker of Puvis de Chavannes since 1881. Connections with Osbert↑ and Seurat. Exhibits at the Salon (1879 onwards), with the SNBA (1890-96), with the Impressionnistes et Symbolistes (1892) and at the Salon de la Rose+Croix (1892-97) where he was one of the founders. Described by Alphonse Germain (1892) as a ‘peintre idéaliste-idéiste’ (R298,p211).
Sources: R298,p211; see links for info + pictures on the internet: WikiPedia (iR3), in French (iR4), WikiMedia (iR6), Joconde (iR23).

 

Paul Sérusier (1863/64-1927):
Attended the Académie Julian (since 1885), where he met (in 1888) Bonnard↑, Denis↑ and Ranson↑. Sérusier met Gauguin in the Summer of 1888 in Pont-Aven. Inspired by Gauguin he paints in October ’the Talisman’, which is called the first Nabis painting (R74,p293;R55,p128). Many see Sérusier as the main stimulator of Les Nabis (R289,p8-10). But  Denis↑ is seen as the true theoretician of Les Nabis (R289,p11).
Later Sérusier travelled with Denis↑ in Italy (1895+1904). Exhibited at the Salon (SdAF) and received in 1888 an honorable mention. Exhibited also with the Expositions Impressionnistes et Symbolistes, at the Salon des Indépendants, La Libre Esthétique (1901) and the Salon d’Automne. Was professor at the Académie Ranson↑.
Publication:
A.B.C. de la peinture. Paris, 1921 (R181II,p631;R289,p11).
Sources: R298,p212; Negri (1974=R289,p93); R181,p594; see links for info + pictures on the internet: WikiPedia (iR3), in French (iR4), WikiMedia (iR6), Joconde (iR23).

 

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec:
Toulouse-Lautrec is often mentioned as a Post-Impressionist, who is hard to put in a certain art-movement.
I will later add some more information.
Sources: Catalogue Raisonné by Dortu (1971=R109); Harris (1995=R66); Felbinger (1999=R67);

 

Félix Vallotton (1865-1925):
Swiss by birth. Attends the Académie Julian (1882). Befriended with Charles Maurin↑. Since 1890 permanent contacts with Les Nabis, but stayed independant. Valloton made a large oeuvre, including portraits, nudes, interiors, still-lifes and landscapes. In his landscapes he also rendered the effect of light; around 1910 he made several sunsets. In many of his paintings we see a simplification of form, reducing perspective and using planes with bright and fairly even colours (iR6). Some discripbe it as a ‘a rigid, cold, plastic, immobile objectness’ (R289,p18). I doubt if it is correct that he made just a few symbolist paintings (R298,p234). Vallotton also made many Woodcut engravings (1892 onwards). Vallotton exhibited at the Salon (SdAF) (1885 onwards), the Salon des Indépendants (1891-93), the Salon de la Rose+Croix (1892), with the Expositions Impressionnistes et Symbolistes, La Libre Esthetique (1895), the SNBA (1895) and the Salon d’Automne (1903). He was professor at the Académie Ranson↑ (R298,176).
Sources: R298,p234; Negri (1974=R289,p93+17); see links for info + pictures on the internet: WikiPedia (iR3), in French (iR4), WikiMedia (iR6), Joconde (iR23), woodcuts at gallica (iR40), works at Musée d’Orsay (M1). Link to the Catalogue Raisonné of Ducrey (2005): WikiMedia.

Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940):
Since his youth connections with Denis↑ and Roussel↑. Attended the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Julian, where he met Bonnard↑, Ibels↑, Ranson↑, Sérusier↑ and Vallotton↑. Member of Les Nabis. Also connections with Maillol↑ and Toulouse-Lautrec.
Sources: R289,p94/5+18/9; R297,p; see links for info + pictures on the internet: WikiPedia (iR3), in French (iR4), WikiMedia (iR6), Joconde (iR23). See link to the Catalogue Raisonné by SWalomon Cogeval & Chivot (2003) (iR6).

 

General sources:
Wubben (1975=R298); Negri (1974=R289); Yann Farinaux-Le Sidaner (2018=R297). And on the internet a Wikipedia page on Le Barc de Boutteville (iR4). See links for the general references (=Rx) and the references to internet (=iRx) for the other sources. For info on the subscription of the paintings see.

 

Citation: Please do not quote from this webpage, which is under construction. The information is incomplete and maybe partly incorrect.

Information from the next sources will be added later: R55; R88.