Impressionism, the partakers of the expositions:
Between Impressionism, Realism and Caractérism
Was Jean-François Raffaëlli an Impressionist?
Raffaëlli defined his painting style as ‘Caractérisme’ opposing it to Realism, but in general we can call him a Realist. Still in several works we can find influences of the impressionist painting style. In many titles he renders the location and sometimes the season. The effect of sunlight on the colours is regularly visible, rendering blue-grey shadows. Sometimes he uses juxtaposed brushstrokes. Raffaëlli painted in various styles. Sometimes very smooth and detailed, sometimes more sketchy. Often he renders fleeting moments in everyday life. But mostly his use of colour was very sub-dued, using a lot of grey-tones, browns and also blacks.
Jean-François Raffaëlli only joined the ‘impressionist’ expositions two times. He caused division and Caillebotte and others were opposed against him joining in 1882 (see below). Still, in 1884/04 Fénéon includes Raffaëlli to the ‘clan of impressionists’ (R1,p478). And in 1886, together with Monet, Raffaëlli was part of the exhibition committee of the ‘Expositions Internationale‘ at the gallery of Georges Petit in which also Renoir joined; all three leaving the 8th ‘impressionist’ exposition of 1886 aside (R3,p255;R1,p522;R88). And together with other Impressionists he exhibits with ‘Les XX‘ in Brussels in 1885+87. But Raffaëlli had dissociated himself from the Impressionists in 1884 finding it ’too purely scientific’ (R1,p522+544). He classified Impressionism as belonging to the past (1884; aR14) and pleaded for a new school named ‘Caractérism’ (1885; aR13). Still he held contacts with Cassatt and Pissarro throughout his career (iR15). So we can say Raffaëlli had a controversial part in the ‘impressionist’ art-movement.
Jean-François Raffaëlli at the Salon 1870-79 / the early years:
Jean-François Raffaëlli exhibited at the Salon in 1870+73+75+76+77+79. 1870 was the debut of Jean-François Raffaëlli at the Salon (aR7,p45;R88;R3;R9). He was rejected for the Salon in 1872 and 78 (aR7,p224;aR14;iR1;R3). Some sources wrongly state that he was regularly refused between 1871-75 (R88;R3). In 1877 he had a great succes at the Salon his work ‘La Famille de Jean le Boiteux’ (iR15;iR1;aR7,p224;iR14). Duranty wrote a warm-hearted review (R88). Several sources (wrongly) write this succes was in 1876 (R9;R88;R3). See works exhibited at the Salon. See link for an account.
Some sources state that around 1868 Jean-François Raffaëlli was a pupil of Gérôme and followed courses at the École des Beaux-Arts (R3;R88;iR1;R1,p73); other sources state this was in 1871 and just for 3 months (aR7,p24;iR15;iR22). At the Salon of 1870 he was not called a pupil of Gérôme, in 1873 he was (iR1). At first Raffaëlli painted mainly landscapes and historical costume pieces; he was also influenced by Corot (iR15).
J.F. Raffaëlli joined the ‘impressionist’ expositions in 1880 and 1881 with many works:
Raffaëlli had rejected the invitation of Degas for the 4th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1879 (R1,p423;R88). Caillebotte mentions that already in 1877/78 Degas tried to persuade Raffaëlli to join the expositions (R102,p275).
At the 5th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1880 J.F. Raffaëlli showed at least 44 works (catalogue numbers 144-179+hc3) (R2,p313;R90I,p262). Including at least 9 etchings.
At the 6th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1881 J.F. Raffaëlli showed 34 works (catalogue numbers 91-124) (R2,p355/6;R90I,p327/8)
Silvestre reviews (1881/04/11) ‘Quite apart I place Mr. Raffaëlli whose research differs absolutely from that of the rest of the group. This one is, on the contrary, refined in detail, an outrageous rendering.’ (R90I,p365). Mantz (1881/04/23) reviews ‘He takes his motives from the lives of humble… As a landscaper, Mr. Raffaelli looks for poetry in the familiar, and he finds it, because it’s everywhere. A figure painter, he likes black a little, but he accentuates the type, he specifies the features, he brings to life – preferably on light backgrounds – characters who are not marked by ideals, and whose naturalism is nevertheless interesting, … ‘ (R90I,p358). Geffroy (1881/04/19) reviews: ‘He became the painter of the suburbs of Paris… (R90I,p343).
Jean-François Raffaëlli received positive critics from Wolff and Claretie (R41). Albert Wolff (1881/04/10) reviewed ‘Like Millet he is the poet of the humble.’ (R2,p368). Later on (1909) Alexandre comments on his joining the ‘impressionists’: ‘rather by affinity of independence than by analogy of procedure or design, for nothing in Raffaëlli’s art is pure impression, but always a mixture of reflexion. If … a school of Expressionists had been created, he would have been its leader.’ (aR7,p90).
See link for his pictures exhibited in 1880 and in 1881. See link for an account.
Note: Monneret wrongly writes he joined in 1881 and 1882 (R88); Guégan 1879 and 1881 (R41); Spiess omits 1881 (R16).
Raffaëlli and the Impressionists:
After his succes at the Salon of 1877 Raffaëlli sometimes joined Degas to the Café de la Nouvelle-Athènes (R88;R1,p399;R5,p47). He also had contacts with Desboutin, Forain, de Nittis and the art-critics Duranty, Geffroy, Edmond de Goncourt, Huysmans, Mallarmé (R88).
Raffaëlli caused division among the Impressionists. Raffaëlli, invited by Degas, first joined the ‘impressionist’ expositions in 1880, the year that Monet had withdrawn. Raffaëlli, who did partake with far out the most (at least 42) works, is called the successor of Monet (R2,p308). In a letter to Pissarro (1881/01/24) Caillebotte complained that Degas took with him artists that were fighters for the cause of Realism, especially Raffaëlli (R102,p275;R1,p447-9;R116I,p170/1). In the preparations of the 1882 exposition Caillebotte, but also Gauguin and Guillaumin didn’t want to exhibit again with Raffaëlli and others that were introduced by Degas. Pissarro felt obliged to support them. On those terms Degas didn’t want to exhibit in 1882, where after his old schoolfriend Rouart and also Cassatt, Forain and Tillot resigned. (R2,p373-378;R1,p464-7;R3,p232;R102,p276;R116I,p173-5;R88).
Around the mid 1870’s his style is influenced by the impressionism of Monet and Sisley (R3). From Impressionism he only borrowed elements like a sketchy way of painting, moveable structure, cutting of at the edge (R3,p222) and subject matter from contemporary life (iR15). He combined a watered-down sort of Impressionism with anecdotic and realistic subjects (R1,p439). His emphasize was on drawing, not on colour; he used many black and whites (R16). He paints with covered hues (R3). He paints with spars colours (R3). Denvir cals him a sort ‘academic Realist’ (R5,p119), he was never an Impressionist; his style can be called magical realist (R8,p383). Still Fénéon (1884/04) includes Raffaëlli to the ‘clan of impressionists’ (R1,p478). Raffaëlli himself classified Realism, Impressionism and Naturalism to the art of the past and pleaded for new art that rendered ‘Le Caractère’ (aR14; see below). In 1908 Raffaëlli wrote ‘Les promenades d’un artiste au Musée du Louvre’, commenting the (old) masters in the Louvre; this book is interesting to read, to see how he appreciated the several painters and art-movements (aR15). Anyway he was opposed to the term ‘Realism’ (aR15,p82).
Raffaëlli depicting outcasts in the Parisian wastelands:
Raffaëlli painted many scenes from the poor suburbs of Paris (R3;R88;R3). He was interested in socially deprived characters like Breton farmers, alcoholics in the city, ragpickers, ordinary workmen (R3,p222;iR14). Most of these works were (probably) made during his years in Asnières from 1877-92. He showed many of these works at the ‘impressionist’ expositions in 1880 and 1881, but he started with it at the Salon, showed many in his solo exhibition in 1884 and also at the SdAF (see). He became a leading figure of the ‘poor-people-art’ (R3,p222). His style is related to Realism (R3). But not just simple realism, but a theory of realism that he christened ‘caractérism’ (aR13;iR22;aR14). His careful observation of man in his milieu paralleled the anti-aesthetic, anti-romantic approach of the literary Naturalists, such as Zola and Huysmans (iR22). Raffaëlli renders these outcasts, working people, ‘gens du bas peuple’ as he calls them (aR14,p7) to depict there ‘caractère’, believing that beauty is within ‘le caractère’, all ‘caractère’, also the characters we have learned to find ugli (aR13). He did not depict them out of a social engagement. (By the way, I doubt if his almost religious glorification of freedom (aR14) did apply to these outcasts.)
Jean-François Raffaëlli at other exhibitions:
After exhibiting with the impressionists in 1880 + 1881 Raffaëlli joined the successor of the Salon, the Société d’Artiste Français, after being rejected in 1882+83, in 1885+86+87+88+89 (iR1;aR7,p224;R14;R3). Still, in 1885 he had received a ‘mention honorable’ (iR1). In 1884 Raffaëlli had a large solo exhibition exhibiting some 181 works; it was a large success (aR14,p18;R3,p222;aR7,p224;R88). In 1885 Raffaëlli exhibited with ‘les XX‘ in Brussels, where he also held a conference (aR13;iR1; Monneret wrongly writes this was in 1889; R88). In 1886, together with Monet, Raffaëlli was part of the exhibition committee of the ‘Expositions Internationales‘ of Georges Petit (R3,p255;R9). In 1887 Raffaëlli probably exhibited again with Les XX, probably together with Lebourg, Morisot, Pissarro, Seurat and Signac (R116I,p202;R88). In 1889 Raffaëlli received the golden medal at the Exposition Universelle (R3;iR1), where he exhibited 6 works (aR7,p224;R88). Jean-François Raffaëlli exhibited at the Société National des Beaux-Arts (=SNBA) in 1891+92+93+94+96+97+98+99 and in 1901+02+03+04+05+07+08+10 (aR7,p224-6;iR1;R3) and probably also later on (aR4=iR23;iR14). Monneret mentions him as one of the founders (R88I,p706), but he didn’t exhibit at their first salon in 1890 (iR1). In 1896/01 there was an exhibition of Raffaëlli’s work at the Arnold gallery in Dresden (R116I,p263). In 1900 Raffaëlli exhibited at the Exposition Universelle and again received a golden medal (aR7,p225;iR1). Raffaëlli seems only to have exhibited at the Salon d’Automne in 1905; but still he was a sociétaire in 1906+07 and part of the Jury for the paintings in 1906 (R239). Raffaëlli was an important member of ‘La Société des Peintures du Paris Moderne‘ (R234). In 1907 he was called ‘membre d’honneur, Fondateurs et Comité’ and in 1913 ‘Président’. This society was united for its love for Paris, exhibiting works that depicted Paris (often with impressionist titles). In 1913 Raffaëlli was honoured with these words in the preface: ‘He was content with the most banal, the most mediocre, the most pitiful and even the most discarded (…) a quite exceptional virtue which is that of the true artist, how to interest us so deeply in all these wretched things, in all these poor beings and these pitiful animals, that he has made us discover a new and endearing world’ (iR261). Raffaëlli also joined some (other) international and regional expositions. See his works exhibited at the Salon and other exhibitions. See link for an account.
Raffaëlli depicting elegant ladies in the Parisian Boulevards:
Mainly after his move to Paris in 1892 Raffaëlli painted often the Boulevards and the squares of Paris inhabited by elegant ladies and upper-class people. He also depicted many monumental buildings of Paris (R88;iR14;iR1;iR15). Many of these works were exhibited at the Salon de la Société National des Beaux-Arts (=SNBA).
Jean-François Raffaëlli as an artist:
Raffaëlli made many portraits (R3). In his portraits he tried to grasp the character of the model (aR14,p66/7;iR14). He painted landscapes in Normandy (R88). Later on he also would paint in Moret, in Venice, in the Provence, in Cagnes (R88). Between 1879-82 he was admired by the art-critic Huysmans (R3,p226;R1,p428+441+472). Around 1886 Raffaëlli was quite famous and had good sales (R3,p255). In 1889 Raffaëlli supported Monet’s attempt to buy Manet’s Olympia in order to offer it to the French nation (R1,p553/4). Jean-François Raffaëlli invented oil markers that combined the features of oil and pastel paint, in french ‘pastels à l’huile’, also called ‘bâtonnet Raffaëlli’ (aR7,p154;iR14;R3;R88). He did many of his works on paper, board or panel (iR14;aR7,p155). The style of his painting varied very much through the years. In his work Jean-François Raffaëlli renders a form of sentimentalism and anecdotism (R41).
Jean-François Raffaëlli as an etcher and sculptor:
Raffaëlli made many etchings (R16;R138XVI;aR2). He made his first etching in 1876 (iR15). He made etchings for the journal ‘Le jour et la nuit’, which would not be published (R5,p116;R116I,p166) and probably partly exhibited those works in 1880 at the 5th ‘impressionist’ exposition. 1889 onwards he made coloured engravings (R88). He illustrated many other books (R88;R9;see below).
Raffaëlli also was a sculptor (R16;R8,p383;R88), exhibiting one at the Salon of 1877 (iR1), two in his solo exhibition in 1884 (aR14), one at the Société des Artistes Français (iR1), two at a Drouot auction (aR16) and several at the Société National des Beaux-Arts (iR1). See at the bottom of the page at the Salon and other exhibitions.
Jean-François Raffaëlli as a book illustrator:
Raffaëlli made for several books illustrations by etching. In 1880 (together with Forain) for Huysmans for his book ‘Croquis Parisiens’ he made 4 works (Delteil 137-140; Beraldi 7-10;R16;aR9;R88), also exhibited as 5IE-1880-166 and se1884-149. In 1886 for Paris Illustré (1886/08/01) he made 23 ‘dessins gillotés en couleur’ depicting ‘Les Cafés-concerts’ (Beraldi no.16). In 1889 for ‘Types de Paris’ he made 79 drawing and reproductions corresponding texts of Daudet, Edmond de Goncourt, Huysmans, Maupassant, Mirbeau, Proust, Wolff, Zola and others (Beraldi 18); it contained 10 editions by ‘Le Figaro’, each edition containing 2 short stories (aR8). In 1890 for Edmond and Jules de Goncourt for their book ‘Germinie Lacerteux’ he made 10 works (Delteil 142-151; Beraldi 13). In 1894 for Octave Mirbeau for his ‘Contes de ma chaumière’ he made two works (Delteil 152+153). In 1909 again for Huysmans for his ‘Les Coeurs Vatard’ he made 28 works (Delteil 154-181). (R138XVI=aR2;R85XI=aR1;aR7,p164). Raffaëlli made more illustrations see Gallica (aR8) and Beraldi no.15+17 (aR1=R85XI).
Raffaëlli his view on art: ‘caractérisme’
Part of the 1884 catalogue is an essay called ‘Étude des mouvements de l’Art Moderne et du Beau Caractériste’ (aR14). This study is a chapter from a book about de Philosophie of modern art, which Raffaëlli wanted to publish soon. Central in this philosophical (and a bit haughty) essay is the word ‘caractère’. Raffaëlli writes ‘Le caractère’ is the essence of beauty, in a positivist era (p21). He pleads for a new art in a new society, characterised by democracy, freedom, free thought, equality, modern science, individualism. A society without religion, king, divine aristocracy, collective social movement. He places Neo-Classicism, Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism and Naturalism in the past. Raffaëlli writes that the search, through the arts, for ‘Caractère’, must be the search for the moral and physical laws determining the individualities and phenomena of nature. The Artist, therefore, must be the legislator of the senses and the educator of ideas. Art must be influenced by philosophy and science. It are the ideas that we love and are passionate about. Beauty is in conscious love, in ‘caractère’, in the individual character of men who conquered their freedom. ‘Caractère’, in fact, is what constitutes the moral physiognomy in its constant and complete expression. ‘Caractère’ is the physiological and psychological constitution of man. Intellectual character is nothing other than the reflexive possession of oneself by free will. Moral or physical character is everything that makes an individual not another individual. Beauty is in freedom, pride and willpower. When an individual has a broad idea of what he sees and fixes this idea in a work of art, this work becomes a work of style and a work of character, because the two are intimately connected. Beauty must have its principle … in a region where the universal and the particular coincide in a primitive unity. This is the point of view of higher self-awareness, of higher knowledge, and this unity of knowledge is called the ‘idea’. (aR14,p.19-70). In his ‘conférance’ for Les XX in Brussels 1885/02/07 he introduced the term ‘caractérisme’, a term opposed to ‘realisme’. And he states that beauty is in ‘le caractére’, in all characters, in charming woman and in the most sinister characters of the lower classes (aR13,p.20-22).
Jean-François Raffaëlli, a short biography:
- 1850/04/20: Jean-François Raffaëlli was born. According to some sources in Lyon (iR79;R88;R3;R9); according to other sources in Paris in the Saint-Eustache district (aR7,p13;iR1;iR79;iR15;iR22). Guégan (wrongly) states that he was born in 1839 (R41); Spiess that he was born in 1845.
His father was Italien from origin and worked as a chemist; his mother came from Lyon (R88;R8,p383;R16). Some sources state that his father also was born in Lyon (aR7,p16).
- The name Raffaëlli is sometimes rendered as Raffaelli (iR1;iR60).
His first name is mostly rendered as Jean-François and sometimes as Francisque (iR1) or Jean Françisque (iR60)
- 1860ca: the family moved to Paris (R88); note: if it is true that Raffaëlli was born in Lyon.
- 1861: his younger brother Jean-Marius Raffaëlli was born (iR60)
- 1864ca: disfortune in his father’s buisiness forced him to seek employment; before that he lived in luxerie; he had a series of jobs (iR15;aR7,p13)
- 1865ca: Jean-François started working (R88)
- 1866ca: Jean-François worked as a book-keeper in a commercial house (aR7,p20;aR15;iR15)
- 1868ca: at first Raffaëlli worked as a bookkeeper and as a singer and as a comedian (R3,p222;R9)
- 1868: Jean-François started singing in a choir at marriages and funerals (R88); Aleandre suggests this was after he left the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1871 (aR7,p24); later on he worked as an actor under the name ‘Raffa’ (R88)
- 1870: debut at the Salon; he lived at 13, rue Girardon, Paris (iR1)
- 1870-71: Jean-François fought in the French-Prussian war and during the Commune (R88).
- 1872: Raffaëlli lived at the ‘Château des Brouillards’ in Montmartre; other artists like Renoir also lived there (aR7,p46/7)
- 1873ca: Raffaëlli married (aR7,p27)
- 1873: he lived at 35, rue Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, Paris (iR1;R88;aR7,p47); he still lived here in 1877 (iR1)
- 1875: Raffaëlli made a trip to Italy (Rome, Milan, Turin, Florence, Naples, Sorrente) (aR7,p38+48);
- 1876: trip to Alger (aR7,p50)
other sources mention: 1870s: travels to Italy, Egypt, Alger and Spain (with his wife; performing theatrical activities); Monneret suggests this was in the mid 70s (R9;R3;R88;iR15)
- 1876: travels to England (R3).
- 1877: his daughter Jeanne Francine Marcelle Raffaëlli was born; she died in 1951 (iR79)
- 1879/06/28: marriage with Rachel Aglaé Heran (1849-1924) (iR79;iR6)
- 1879-91: he lived 19, rue de la Bibliothèque, Asnière (Seine) (iR1;R2,p313+355;R88); he would live in Asnières untill 1892 (iR14); here he had a ‘charming little house’ (aR7,p78). Maybe he moved to Asnière earlier in 1877 or 1878.
- 1880: illustrates ‘Croquis Parisiens’ of Huysmans (aR9)
- 1882: trip to Honfleur (iR14)
- 1884: in a solo-exhibition he rendered 155 works; in the catalogue (see account) he also wrote an essay titled ‘study of the movements of modern art and the beautiful character’ (see above) (aR14,p21-70;iR19;R88).
- 1889: illustrates Les Types de Paris (aR17=iR40;R88;iR14)
- 1889: exhibits at the Exposition Universelle (R88) and appointed as Chevalier in the Légion d’Honneur (iR22;aR7,p173;iR1)
- 1892: he moved from Asnières to Paris, 202, Rue Courcelles (R88;iR14;iR1); he would live here still in 1903 (iR1).
- 1893: published with Boussod et Valadon a serie of 6 colour etchings titled ‘les Petits gens’ (aR7,p160), probably the same, called by Delteil, as ’types de petite gens’ and dated 1894 (aR2=R138XVI,no8-13).
- 1894/06/21: auction of his works at Hôtel Drouot; no.1-25 paintings (including messures); no.26-40, drawing enhanced with watercolours; no.41+41 sculptures (aR16).
- 1895: he did a lecture tour in the USA (aR7,p224;R88;iR22), later telling Pissarro (1896/07) how the people admired Monet (R116I,p263;R88); elswhere Alexandre writes this was in 1894 and he went to Pittsburgh exhibiting, being part of a jury and giving a conferance and also that he did an exhibition tour through the USA in New York, Boston, Chicago and Philadelphia exhibiting 150 works, but Alexandre doesn’t make it clear if this was in 1894 or 1899 (aR7,p175/6).
- 1898: exhibits 30 (coloured) etchings at the gallerie of Bing (R88); according to Alexandre it were 40 etchings (aR7,p160).
- 1899: Second journey to the USA (aR7,p225); according to another source this was in 1897 (iR22). Elswhere Alexandre writes that he went to Pittsburgh exhibiting, being part of a jury and giving a conferance and also that he did an exhibition tour through the USA in New York, Boston, Chicago and Philadelphia exhibiting 150 works, but Alexandre doesn’t make it clear if this was in 1894 or 1899 (aR7,p175/6).
- 1900: exhibits at the Exposition Universelle; receives a golden medal for his colour etchings (aR7,p174).
- 1901/11/09: his daughter Jeanne Francine Marcelle married with Chevrier (iR79)
- 1903/11/15: Raffaëlli attends the funeral of Pissarro (R116I,p319).
- 1907: Raffaëlli lived at 1, rue Chardin (Trocadéro) (XVIe), Paris (iR1); maybe he moved to her earlier; he lived her also in 1910 (iR1)
- 1908: Raffaëlli published his book ‘Les promenades d’un artiste au Musée du Louvre’ (aR15=iR40); the second edition was titled ‘Mes promenades au Musée du Louvre’ and published in 1913 (iR26).
- 1909: large retrospective at Georges Petit with 2021 canvasses; he wrote the preface of the catalogue himself (R88)
- 1924/02/11: Jean-François Raffaëlli died in Paris (iR79;R3;R9;iR22)
My main sources are Rewald (1973=R1), Moffett (1986=R2), Walther (2013,p690=R3), Denvir (1993=R5;1992=R8), Schurr&Cabanne (2008=R9,p607), Spiess (1992,p275=R16), Guégan (2005=R41,p102), Monneret (1978-81=R88I,p703-6), the Salon database (iR1), and the additional references (aRx). For other general references (=R) see. My main sources (for the pictures) from the internet are the athenaeum (iR2), Wikimedia (iR6), mutualart (iR11), Sotheby’s (iR14), Christie’s (iR15), WGI (iR22), Joconde (iR23), BNF (iR40), Tutt’art (iR204) and Google images (iR10). For other references to internet sites (=iR) see. For other additional references (=aR) see below. See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.
For further reading:
Galerie Brame & Lorenceau & the Comité Raffaëlli: digital Raffaëlli Catalogue critique (in preparation) (iR14;iR15)
Barbara Schinman Fields, Jean-François Raffaëlli (1850-1924): The Naturalist Artist, Ann Arbor, 1979 (iR14)
Isaacson, Joel: The crisis of Impressionism, 1878-1886, exhibition catalogue. Michigan, 1980.
- gallica.bnf.fr//henri_beraldi_tome_11 (the entire 11th Volume of Henri Beraldi: Les graveurs du XIXe siècle, published 1891, with works about Raffaëlli; =iR40 = R85XI,p57-60)
- gallica.bnf.fr//Loys_Delteil_peintre-graveurs_tome_16 (the entire 16th volume of Loys Delteil: Le peintre-graveur illustré about J.F., Raffaëlli, published 1923; =R138XVI)
- gallica.bnf.fr//Jean-François_Raffaëlli (database with pictures of Raffaëlli; =iR40)
- joconde//Raffaëlli (overview works of Raffaëlli in French musea; =iR23)
- The NYPL (=iR61) renders just one etch.
- ISSUU//Gazette des Beaux Arts (Gustave Geffroy: biography of Raffaëlli. Gazette des Beaux-Arts, no.749. Paris, 1924; =iR226)
- ISSUU//Raffaëlli (Arsène Alexandre: Jean-François Raffaëlli; Peintre, Graveur et Sculpteur. Paris, 1909; =iR226; taken from iR19)
- data.bnf.fr//raffaëlli (overview of works of and documents on Raffaëlli; = iR26)
- gallica.bnf.fr//croquis_parisien (Huysmans: Croquis Parisien. Paris, 1880. With etchings of Raffaëlli and Forain; =iR40)
- Drouot//Raffaëlli (catalogue 2020/03/13 sale with works and information on Raffaëlli; =iR85)
- eclecticlight.co//Raffaëlli (article on Raffaëlli; =iR35)
- Tutt’art//Raffaëlli (many beautiful pictures of Raffaëlli, only rendering the titles; =iR204)
- Conferance at les XX (PDF of a speech held by Raffaëlli at les XX in Brussels 1885/02/07; =iR19)
- archive//catalogue illustré (PDF of the catalogue of the solo exhibition of Raphaëlli in 1884, with an essay of himself; =iR19)
- gallica.bnf.fr//les promenades (digital reproduction of his book published in 1908 ‘Les promenades d’un artiste au Musée du Louvre; =iR40)
- gallica/bnf.fr//catalogue-Drouot-1894 (Catalogue of the Drouot auction, 1894/06/21; =iR40)
- gallica/bnf.fr//les-Types-de-Paris (online version with PDF download option of Les Types de Paris published in 1889 and illustrated by Raffaëlli; =iR40)
- gallica.bnf.fr//En_Guinnea_1895 (online version of a publication of Jean-François Raffaëlli in 1895 titled ‘En Guinée’; =iR40)
- “Jean-François Raffaëlli.” In Database of Modern Exhibitions (DoME). European Paintings and Drawings 1905-1915. Last modified Dec 17, 2020. http://exhibitions.univie.ac.at/person/ulan/500048150 =iR261; overview of contributions of Raffaëlli in exhibitions and auctions from 1905-1915
Recommanded citation: “Jean-François Raffaëlli, between Impressionism, Realism and Caratérism. Last modified 2023/01/10. https://www.impressionism.nl/raffaelli-jean-francois/.”