Durand-Ruel Gallery

Other Exhibitions

The Durand-Ruel Gallery

The promoter of the ‘Impressionists’

 

 

Introduction:
Paul Durand-Ruel was the most important art-dealer for the Impressionists. Probably without his efforts the works of the Impressionists wouldn’t have been known as they are today. For the Impressionists Durand-Ruel was crucial for financial support and for becoming known in France and on the international art-market. It’s interesting to know whose works he did sell and whose works he didn’t and why. It’s a pity that in most sources there is not much information about Durand-Ruel his purchases of works of lesser known ‘impressionist’.
On this page first you will find more general information on the Paul Durand-Ruel galleries. Than you will find an overview of the connections between the ‘impressionists’ and Durand-Ruel and his purchases. Than you will find an overal view of exhibitions organised by Durand-Ruel.

 

The Paul Durand-Ruel Gallery:
At first the Durand-Ruel Gallery concentrated on works of the Barbizon painters and other landscapists / pre-impressionists. Since 1851 Paul Durand-Ruel worked in the gallery of his father (R3,p659). 1865/06/15 he took over the gallery at the Rue de la Paix of his departed father (R3; R5,p35) and continued supporting the Barbizon school (R2,p379). In 1869 he opened a new gallery at 11, Rue Peletier, Paris (R3). April 1871 he opened a Gallery in Brussels (R5,p69+214).
In London November 1870, all fled for the Franco-Prussian war, Daubigny introduced Monet (and Pissarro) to Paul Durand-Ruel. From then on he started to buy and exhibited works of Monet and Pissarro and since 1872 also of the other ‘impressionists’ like Manet, Degas, Renoir and Sisley (R5,p65+72/3;R3,p135;R30;R2,p379). In the early 1870s Durand organised regular exhibitions of French painters in his London gallery, including impressionist works. For the Impressionists they were without much succes, Durand-Ruel almost didn’t sell works of the Impressionists in England (R5,p77). Still, we see that Monet, Pissarro and Sisley stopped submitting to the Salon, where they were more than once accepted. Did they have so much faith in the purchases and exhibitions of Durand-Ruel, that they thought they didn’t need the Salon anymore to get known and to have sufficiant sales?
Around 1874, due to an economic crises, Durand-Ruel had to diminish and even stop his purchases of the Impressionists, who were left on their own. Durand-Ruel even had to sell his obtained paintings (R3, R2,p146) December 1875 he had to close his gallery in London (R5,p92). Maybe this was an important boost for the ‘impressionists’ to organise their own expositions, starting in 1874. In 1876 Durand-Ruel lent 3 rooms of his gallery at the Rue le Peletier in Paris for the 2nd ‘Impressionist’ Exposition.
In 1880 Durand-Ruel received credit of Jules Feder, director of the Union générale banc and he started to purchase works of the Impressionists again, this time on a more regular bases. Around the same time he starts to show impressionist works in Paris and at regional and international exhibitions. 1882/01/19 the bankruptcy of the Union Générale meant for Durand-Ruel new financial problems (R2,p377; R3), still he starts on buying works from the ‘impressionists’. In 1883 he holds several solo-exhibitions. In 1884 Durand-Ruel had to liquidate part of his stock because of worsening financial situation (R2,p422). He also sold works to George Petit with whom he had a hard rivalry on the art market (R3). Already in the Fall of 1885 Durand-Ruel had plans for a large group exhibition (R2,p440). In 1886 he organises a large exhibition in New York of ‘the impressionists of Paris’. In 1888 he opened a new gallery in New York, which was led by his three sons (R3). In 1911 Paul Durand-Ruel left his business and leaves it to his sons (R3)

 

The ‘impressionists’ and Durand-Ruel, connections and purchases, a chronological overview:

  • Daubigny introduced Monet (and Pissarro) to Paul Durand-Ruel (R5,p65+72/3;R3,p135;R30;R2,p379)
  • 1872 buys many paintings of Manet (R2; R3,p113)
  • 1872 starts to support Degas (since Januar), Monet (29 works),
    Pissarro,
    Renoir (since 1872/03/14; just about 1000 francs) and
    Sisley (since 1872/03/12)
    (R5,p72/3; R3,p135 R30; R2,p379)
  • by the end of 1873 he had spent >70.00 francs on the Impressionists (R2,p106)
  • 1873: publishes a catalogue ‘Recueil d’estampes’ with 300 reproductions, including 20 of Delacroix, Corot, Millet and Rousseau, 7 of Courbet and Manet and a few of Degas, Monet, Pissarro and Sisley; with a foreword by Armand Silvestre (R3,p113)
  • 1876/04/01 the second impressionist exposition is organized in his gallery; no financial succes (R3, x)
  • 1880/09 exhibition in Oran, Alger; sends in 233 (most impressionist) paintings (R5,p118)
  • 1881: Durand-Ruel starts buying paintings again from Monet (30x),
    Renoir (since 1881/01; R5,p122),
    Pissarro (1881/02 for 12.000 franc; R5,p122; R2,p390)
    and Sisley (20x).
    He made contracts the complete production of paintings in exchange of advance payments that garanties the livelihood of the Impressionists (R2,p377; R3)
    (R3;R2,p377)
  • 1881 onwards he also supports Cassatt (R44,p140)
  • 1881/05/18 buys a work of Degas for 5.000 franc (R5,p123)
  • 1882 co-organizes the seventh impressionist exposition (R3)
  • 1882:  Durand-Ruel had new financial problems (R2,p377; R3)
    Still he goes on buying works in 1882 from Monet (40x),
    Sisley (20x)
  • 1883: purchases from Monet (30x),
    Sisley (>10x)
    (R2,p391)

 

Chronological overview of exhibitions by the Durand-Ruel Gallery:

  • 1870/12/10 exhibits 144 works in his London gallery, mainly of Barbizon painters like Corot, Courbet, Diaz, Daubigny, Dupré and Millet, but also some works of Monet (1x?) and Pissarro (R5,p65; R22IV,p1016)
  • 1871/03/18: exhibits 139 works in his London gallery; with Monet (2x) and Pissarro (2x) (R5,p69; R22IV,p1016)
  • 872/06/04 opens 4th exhibition of French painters in London; with Degas, Monet (?x), Pissarro and Sisley (R5,p73; R2)
  • 1872/11/02 opening of the 5th exhibition of French painters in London; with Degas, Manet, Monet (2x), Pissarro, Renoir (1x) and Sisley (R5,p73; R31,p315; R22IV,p1016)
  • 1873, March: 6th exhibition of French painters in London; with Degas, Manet, Monet (2x), Pissarro and Sisley (R5,p78; R22IV,p1016)
  • 1873, ?: 7th exhibition of French painters in London; with Monet (2x) (R22IV,p1016)
  • 1874,printemps: 8th exhibition of French painters in London; with Monet (2x) (R22IV,p1016)
  • 1874,June: 9th exhibition of French painters in London with Manet, Monet (1x), Pissarro, Renoir (2x) and Sisley (R5,p85; R31,p315; R22IV,p1016)
  • 1875/12: closes his gallery in London (R5,p92); he almost didn’t sell works of the Impressionists in England (R5,p77)
  • 1876/04/01 the second impressionist exposition is organized in his gallery; no financial succes (R3, x)
  • 1878/07/15 exhibition of 380 (or: 360) paintings of Delacroix, Millet, Rousseau, Troyon and others; no succes (R2,p262; R5,p110)
  • 1880/09 exhibition in Oran, Alger; sends in 233 (most impressionist) paintings (R5,p118)
  • 1882/07/01 ‘Impressionists in England’ exhibition in London; with Monet (4x), Renoir (R2,p382+391; R22IV,p1016; R31,p315)
  • hard rivalry with George Petit on the art market (R3)
  • 1882 co-organizes the seventh impressionist exposition (R3)
  • 1882/05/05: in London exhibition of impressionists paintings; with Cassatt, Degas, Monet, Renoir and Sisley and also pre-Impressionists Delacroix and Millet; receives good critics (R5,p129/130)
  • 1882/10/01 sends in works of Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley to a regional exhibition in Tours (R5,p130)
  • 1883: serie of solo exhibitions (mostly around 70 works): Degas refuses to join; Boudin; Monet (about 60x; o3/01-25); Renoir (April; 70 works); Pissarro (May); Sisley (June)
    9, Boulevard de la Madeleine, Paris (R31,p315; R5,p134/5)
  • 1883/04-07: exhibition of ‘La Société des Impressionnistes’ in London showing works of Boudin, Cassatt, Degas, Manet, Monet (4x), Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir (10x) and Sisley (R5,p134/5; R31,p315)
  • 1883: other shows with Impressionist paintings in Boston, Rotterdam and Berlin (R5,p422)
  • 1884, May: ‘Exposition de tableaux impressionnistes…’ in London; with Monet (5x?); (R22IV,p1016)
  • 1885, June: in Brussels “exposition de MM. Degas, Monet (3x?), Pissarro, Renoir et Sisley” (R5,p143; R31,p315; R22IV,p1017)
  • 1885/07/12: exhibition in Amsterdam with impressionists works (R5,p144)
  • 1885, Geneva; with Monet (2x) (R22IV,p1017)
  • 1886, April-June: exhibition in New York ‘the impressionists of Paris’
    with about 300 paintings, Caillebotte (several), Cassatt (several), Degas (23x), Monet (48x), Morisot (several), Pissarro (42x), Renoir (38x), Seurat (3x), Signac (6x), Sisley (15x) and Manet (17x)
    Aril: in the American Art Galleries; with Monet (28x?), Renoir (38x), Seurat,
    05/25-June: in the National Academy of Design; with Monet (18x?), Renoir (38x),
    (R3, R5,p149; R22IV,p1017; R31,p315; R39,p300; R44,p140)
  • 1888/05-06: Exposition in Paris; with Renoir (24x) (R31,p315)
  • 1889/02/27: posthumes exhibition of 28 works of Sisley in New York (R5,p222)
  • 1891: first solo-exhibition of Cassatt (R3,p652)
  • 1892: Exposition S. Renoirs (110 works!) (R31,p315)
  • 1893: the only solo-exhibition of Degas (with landscapes in pastel) (R3,p180)
  • 1893: solo-exhibition Cassatt (R3,p652)
  • 1893/11/04 – 12/01: exhibition of 44 works of Gauguin after mediation of Degas (R36,p81)
  • 1894/03/07 solo exhibition of 98 works of Pissarro (R5,p194)
  • 1895: solo exhibition of Cassatt in New York (R44,p141; R3,p652)
  • 1896/05-06: exposition Renoir (42x) (R31,p316)
  • 1896: posthumous exposition of Morisot (R42,p92)
  • 1898, 1899, 1910, : exhibitions in Paris with works of Monet, Renoir, Pissarro and Sisley (R31,p316)
  • 1900, 1908, 1915 : exhibitions in Paris with works of Monet and Renoir (R31,p316)
  • 1905: exhibition in London: pictures by Boudin, Cézanne, Degas, Manet, Monet, Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir (59x), Sisley (R31,p216)

 

Citation: Please do not quote from this webpage, which is under construction. The information is incomplete and maybe partly incorrect.