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Meta-Impressionism / Other Exhibitions
The Durand-Ruel Gallery
The promoter of the ‘Impressionists’
Paul Durand-Ruel was the most important art-dealer for the Impressionists. Probably without his efforts the works of the Impressionists wouldn’t have been known as they are today. For the Impressionists Durand-Ruel was crucial for financial support and for becoming known in France and on the international art-market. It’s interesting to know whose works he did sell and whose works he didn’t and why. It’s a pity that in most sources there is not much information about Durand-Ruel his purchases of works of lesser known ‘impressionist’.
On this page first you will find more general information on the Paul Durand-Ruel galleries. Than you will find an overview of the connections between the ‘impressionists’ and Durand-Ruel and his purchases. Than you will find an overal view of exhibitions organised by Durand-Ruel.
General info on the Paul Durand-Ruel Gallery:
At first the Durand-Ruel Gallery concentrated on works of the Barbizon painters and other landscapists / pre-impressionists. Since 1851 Paul Durand-Ruel worked in the gallery of his father (R3,p659). 1865/06/15 he took over the gallery at the Rue de la Paix of his departed father (R3; R5,p35) and continued supporting the Barbizon school (R2,p379). In 1869 he opened a new gallery at 11, Rue Peletier, Paris (R3). April 1871 he opened a Gallery in Brussels (R5,p69+214).
In London November 1870, all fled for the Franco-Prussian war, Daubigny introduced Monet (and Pissarro) to Paul Durand-Ruel. From then on he started to buy and exhibited works of Monet and Pissarro and since 1872 also of the other ‘impressionists’ like Manet, Degas, Renoir and Sisley (R5,p65+72/3;R3,p135;R30;R2,p379). In the early 1870s Durand organised regular exhibitions of French painters in his London gallery, including impressionist works. For the Impressionists they were without much succes, Durand-Ruel almost didn’t sell works of the Impressionists in England (R5,p77). Still, we see that Monet, Pissarro and Sisley stopped submitting to the Salon, where they were more than once accepted. Did they have so much faith in the purchases and exhibitions of Durand-Ruel, that they thought they didn’t need the Salon anymore to get known and to have sufficiant sales?
Around 1874, due to an economic crises, Durand-Ruel had to diminish and even stop his purchases of the Impressionists, who were left on their own. Durand-Ruel even had to sell his obtained paintings (R3;R2,p146) December 1875 he had to close his gallery in London (R5,p92). Maybe this was an important boost for the ‘impressionists’ to organise their own expositions, starting in 1874. In 1876 Durand-Ruel lent 3 rooms of his gallery at the Rue le Peletier in Paris for the 2nd ‘Impressionist’ Exposition.
In 1880 Durand-Ruel received credit of Jules Feder, director of the Union générale banc and he started to purchase works of the Impressionists again, this time on a more regular bases. He made contracts with Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley, which implyed that he had the right on the complete production of paintings in exchange of advance payments that garanties the livelihood of the artists (R2,p377;R3). Around the same time he started to show impressionist works in Paris and at regional and international exhibitions, including exhibitions that were called “impressionist“, namely in London. 1882/01/19 the bankruptcy of the Union Générale meant for Durand-Ruel new financial problems (R2,p377; R3), still he continued buying works from the ‘impressionists’. In 1883 he held several solo-exhibitions of the Impressionists. In 1884 Durand-Ruel had to liquidate part of his stock because of worsening financial situation (R2,p422). He also sold works to Georges Petit with whom he had a hard rivalry on the art market (R3). Already in the Fall of 1885 Durand-Ruel had plans for a large group exhibition (R2,p440). In 1886 he organised a large exhibition in New York called ‘the impressionists of Paris’. In 1888 he opened a new gallery in New York, which was led by his three sons (R3). In 1911 Paul Durand-Ruel left his business and left it to his sons (R3)
The ‘impressionists’ and Durand-Ruel, connections and purchases, a chronological overview:
- started to represent the work of Lépine from 1870 (R21;aR6).
- End 1870: Daubigny introduced Monet (and Pissarro) to Paul Durand-Ruel (R5,p65+72/3;R3,p135;R30;R2,p379)
- 1872 buys many paintings of Manet (R2; R3,p113)
- 1872 starts to support Degas (since Januar), Monet (29 works),
Renoir (since 1872/03/14; just about 1000 francs) and
Sisley (since 1872/03/12)
(R5,p72/3; R3,p135 R30; R2,p379)
- by the end of 1873 he had spent more than 70.00 francs on the ‘impressionists’ (R2,p106)
- 1873: published a catalogue ‘Recueil d’estampes’ with 300 reproductions, including 20 of Delacroix, Corot, Millet and Rousseau, 7 of Courbet and Manet and a few of Degas, Monet, Pissarro and Sisley; with a foreword by Armand Silvestre (R3,p113)
1873, engravings Vol.1, no. 1-50: with a preface by Silvestre. (1x Degas, 1x Monet, 2x Pissarro, 1x Sisley, several Barbizon painters) (link to PDF at iR19)
1873, engravings Vol.2, no. 51-99 (1xMonet, 1x Pissarro, many of Barbizon painters; 240p (link to PDF at iR19)
- 1874/04/15: did loan 2 paintings of Sisley to the 1st ‘impressionist’ exposition (1IE-1874-161 + 162).
- 1876/04/01 the 2nd ‘impressionist’ exposition was organized in his gallery; this was no financial succes (R3, x)
he did loan2 paintings of Sisley (2IE-1876-241 + 242).
- 1879/04/10: did loan 2 paintings of Monet to the 4th ‘impressionist’ exposition (4IE-1879-159 + 160)
- 1880/09 exhibition in Oran, Alger; send in 233 (most impressionist) paintings (R5,p118)
- 1881: Durand-Ruel started buying paintings again from Monet (30x),
Renoir (since 1881/01; R5,p122),
Pissarro (1881/02 for 12.000 franc; R5,p122; R2,p390)
and Sisley (20x).
He made contracts the complete production of paintings in exchange of advance payments that garanties the livelihood of the Impressionists (R2,p377; R3)
- 1881: bought the entire content of Boudin his studio and became his main art-dealer (R161,p70;R3;R87)
- 1881 onwards he also supported Cassatt (R44,p140)
- 1881/05/18 bought a work of Degas for 5.000 franc (R5,p123)
- 1882 co-organized the 7th ‘impressionist’ exposition (R3)
- 1882: Durand-Ruel had new financial problems (R2,p377; R3)
Still he goes on buying works in 1882 from Monet (40x), Sisley (20x)
- 1883: purchases from Monet (30x), Sisley (>10x) (R2,p391)
- 1886/05/15: did loan 2 works of Forain to the 8th ‘impressionist’ exposition (8IE-1886-29+33).
- 1887/05/05+06: Sale of part of the Durand-Ruel collection at WP Moore in New York with works of Boudin, Degas, Desboutin, Forain, Lépine, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley. (link to PDF at archive.org = iR19).
Chronological overview of exhibitions by the Durand-Ruel Gallery:
- from 1870-75 Durand-Ruel held 9 exhibitions of the Society of French Artists in London, see link for more info.
- 1875/12: closed his gallery in London (R5,p92); he almost didn’t sell works of the ‘impressionists’ in England (R5,p77)
- 1876/04/01 the 2nd ‘impressionist’ exposition was organized in his gallery; it was no financial succes (R3;R2)
- 1878/07/15 exhibition of 380 (or: 360) paintings of Delacroix, Millet, Rousseau, Troyon and others; no succes (R2,p262; R5,p110)
- 1880/09 exhibition in Oran, Alger; send in 233 (most impressionist) paintings (R5,p118)
- 1882/03/01: co-organized the 7th ‘impressionist’ exposition (R3;R2)
- 1882/summer: ‘Exposition Impressionniste’ in London; with Cassatt, Degas, Monet (4x), Renoir and Sisley and others (R22IV,p1016; R31,p315;R5,p129/130;R2,p382)
- 1882/10/01 send in works of Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley to a regional exhibition in Tours (R5,p130)
- 1883: serie of solo exhibitions of Boudin (150x in Februar); Monet (60x; in March); Renoir (70x; in April); Pissarro (70x; in May); Sisley (60x; in June): introducing his new gallery at 9, Boulevard de la Madeleine, Paris; Degas refused to join (R31,p315; R5,p134/5).
Note: all later solo exhibitions at Durand-Ruel you will find on the separate page on solo exhibitions.
- 1883/04-07: exhibition of ‘La Société des Impressionnistes’ in London showing works of Boudin, Cassatt, Degas, Manet, Monet (4x), Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir (10x) and Sisley.
- 1883: other international exhibitions with Impressionist paintings in Boston, Rotterdam and Berlin (R5,p422)
- 1884, May + June: ‘Exposition de tableaux impressionnistes…’ in London; with Monet (5x), Pissarro (9x), Sisley.
- 1885, June: in Brussels “exposition de MM. Degas, Monet (3x?), Pissarro, Renoir et Sisley” (R5,p143; R31,p315; R22IV,p1017)
- 1885/07/12: exhibition in Amsterdam with impressionists works (R5,p144)
- 1885, Geneva; with Monet (2x) (R22IV,p1017)
- 1886, April-June: exhibition in New York called “Works in Oil and Pastel by the Impressionists of Paris“, see the separate page.
- 1887/05/25 – 06/30: exhibition by Durend-Ruel in New York with works of Boudin, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley, Manet, Puvis de Chavannes, Stevens and 1 work of De Nittis (R166,p57)
- 1888/05/25 -06/25: Exposition in Paris; with Boudin; Caillebotte (6x); Lépine, Morisot; Pissarro (26x or 13x), Renoir (24x), Sisley (24x or 17x) and related painters like Brown and Whistler. Note: Monet didn’t partake. (R5,p162;R31,p315;R102,p283+CR;R116,p363 +CCP 464 +?642 +?646+649+665+703;R53,p141;R22I,p241;R31,p303)
- 1888: Durand-Ruel opened in new gallery in New York that was led by his 3 sons (R3)
- 1889/01/23: first exhibition of the ‘Société des Peintres-Graveurs‘ by Durand-Ruel including Bracquemond, Pissarro, Cassatt and Redon (R5,p168;R73,p18;R44,p28). Other exhibitions would follow and Félix Bracquemond was an important force behind them and was the first president (R44,p28;R88). In 1891 they excluded artists who were not French by birth, thus excluding Pissarro and Cassatt who had their own exhibition at Durand-Ruel (R44,p31).
- 1898, 1899, 1910: small group exhibitions in Paris with works of Monet, Renoir, Pissarro and Sisley (R31,p316)
The 1898 is not confirmed by Wildenstein (R22IV,p1018).
1899/04: it included 36 works of Monet (R22IV,p1018)
1910/06/01 – 25: it included 17 works of Monet (R22IV,p1020).
- 1900, 1908, 1915 : small group exhibitions in Paris with works of Monet and Renoir (R31,p316)
The 1900 exhibition is not confirmed by Wildenstein (R22IV,p1018).
1908/05/18 – 06/06: included 42 works of Monet (R22IV,p1020).
1910/12/11 -31: in New York, included 8 works of Monet (R22IV,p1022).
- 1905/01 – 1905/02: exhibition in London at the Crafton Galleries: including pictures by Boudin, Cézanne, Degas, Manet, Monet, Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley (R22I,p369;R31,p310)
- 1913/12/20 – 1914/01/08: Exhibition of paintings (representing still life and flowers by) Manet, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley, André, d’Espagnat; Durand-Ruel galleries in New York, 12 east 57th street. Showing 36 still lifes, 4 by Manet (including 3 gouaches), 5 by Monet (=CR546 +625 +1651 +1657 +1685), 1 by Pissarro (=CCP270), 8 by Renoir, 1 by Sisley, 9 by Albert André, 8 by Georges d’Espagnat.
Sources: catalogue (PDF at archive.org = iR19;R22IV,p1021;R116I,p370.
- 1917/12/02-30, loans of Durand-Ruel to an exhibition at Worcester Art Museum; including works of Cassatt, Degas, Manet, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir & Sisley (link to PDF at archive.org = iR19)
Chronological overview of auctions at the Durand-Ruel gallery:
Note: info will be added.
My main sources are the catalogues raisonnée of Monet (R22IV,p1016+), of Pissarro (R116); catalogues of Renoir (R31), Sisley (R166). Other main sources are Moffett (R2), Walther (R3), Denvir (R5). For other general references (=R) see. For other references to internet sites (=iR) see.
See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.
Recommanded citation: Meta-Impressionism / other exhibitions: The Durand-Ruel gallery; the promoter of the ‘impressionists’. Last modified 2023/11/17. https://www.impressionism.nl/durand-ruel-gallery/”
Note: additional info will be added.