Jean-Marius Raffaëlli (1861-82)
The forgotten younger brother
Jean-Marius Raffaëlli only joined the ‘impressionist’ exposition of 1880:
At the 5th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1880 Jean-Marius Raffaëlli showed 6 etchings. In the catalogue under number 180 described as ‘Six eaux fortes’ (R2,p314;R90I,p263;iR1). In the catalogue is mentioned that he lived at 4, Rue de Ravignan, Paris, which lies between the Moulin Rouge and the Sacré Coeur in Montmartre (see maps). Jean-Marius did exhibited beside the more famous Jean-François Raffaëlli, who exhibited at least 42 works.
Moffett refers to the appendix of a work of Delteil dedicated to Jean-François Raffaëlli (R2,p314+486;aR1=R138XVI). Delteil renders in this ‘apocryphes’ 6 etchings and writes: “The previous 6 works, are originally signed Marius, and later on Raffaëlli the younger, are made by a younger brother of J-F Raffaëlli, Marius Raffaëlli, who died very young in Kayes (Sénégal) at the age of 22, who has produced very little.” (Delteil XVI, 1923,p202). Berson renders the same 6 etchings (R90II,p173/4) and adds titles (R90II,p156) and describes the signature ‘Raffaelli Jne’. I here render the images from Delteil, which I found in the Bibliotheque National de France (iR40) and which I reworked. Some titles of Berson I changed a bit. Berson doesn’t refer to reviews (R90II,p156) and most reviews just refer to M. Raffaëlli, meaning Jean-François (R90I,p265-319). This and the fact that Jean-Marius didn’t give titles to his exhibited etchings, makes it impossible to identify the works. So I render the pictures as uncertain possibilities.
Nowhere else could I find pictures of Jean-Marius Raffaëlli, not at Wikimedia (iR6), Google images (iR10), Joconde (iR23), gallica.bnf.fr (iR40; exept for the Delteil source, but a search doesn’t render it), nor at the New York Public Library (iR61).
Walther only mentions that Jean-Marius Raffaëlli probably was a graphic artist and joined the 1880 exposition (R3,p690). Spiess omits to distinguish between the more known Jean-François Raffaëlli and Jean-Marius Raffaëlli (R16,p373). All the other sources don’t mention him at all. It is interesting to read what sources tell about the youth of Jean-François, who was born in 1850. Monneret mentions that their father was a chemist and of origin Italian. Their mother came from Lyon, where Jean-François was born. Around 1860 the family moved to Paris, where Jean-Marius was born in 1861. (R88I,p703). Note: other sources state that Jean-François was born in Paris (iR1;iR79;iR15;iR22).
On the internet ULAN (aR2) mentions Jean-Marius Raffaëlli was a French printmaker and also known as Marius-Joseph. He was born in 1861 and died in 1882, which would mean that he exhibited with the ‘impressionist’ at the age of about 19 and that he died at the age of about 21. The ULAN uses the ‘Bibliography of the History of Art’ of 1973 as source (aR2). The ULAN also mentions that Jean-Marius Raffaëlli is mentioned in the book of Joel Isaacson ‘Crises of Impressionism’ of 1980 (aR2). On the internet WikiData (aR3) VIAF.org (aR4) and upclosed.com (aR5) take over these data. Other internet sites mention he did partake at the 5th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1880 (iR59; iR62). This is also mentioned in an e-book written by Dominque Lobstein (see).
Searching on the internet you mostly get works of his more famous older brother Jean-François Raffaëlli, who signes his works with J-F Raffaëlli’, which distinguishes him clearly from Jean-Marius. But not all of the works attributed to Jean-François are signed. So it’s especially interesting to research the unsigned etchings attributed to Jean-François Raffaëlli, if it is possible that they could be made by Jean-Marius. But since Jean-Marius died very young he didn’t produce a lot of art-work.
Delteil mentions that Jean-Marius died in Kayes in Senegal in 1882 (aR1=R138XVI). Kayes is nowadays a city in Mali, close to the Senegal border, see map (iR9), it lies along the Senegal river, in the Kayes region of Mali. In 1881 it became a military outpost of the French colony in Senegal and in 1892 became the capital of French Sudan (aR8=iR3). So probably Jean-Marius Raffaëlli died in Mali. At the age of 22 he probably was here because of his military service. In his discription of Guinée and French Sudan, Jean-François Raffaëlli mentions in 1895 one time Kayes (aR9,p31), but there is no reference to his brother Jean-Marius.
As far as I know, Jean-Marius Raffaëlli never did participate at the Salon (iR1).
My main sources are Delteil (1923=R138XVI,p201/2=aR1), Berson (1996=R90II,p156+173/4), Moffett (1986, R2), Monneret (1978-81=R88I,p703) and Walther (2013=R3,p690). For other general references (=R) see. My main sources from the internet is the ULAN (iR60=aR2) and the Bibliothèque National de France (iR40). For other references to internet sites (=iR) see. For other additional references (=aR) see below. See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.
For further reading see:
Isaacson, Joel: The crisis of Impressionism, 1878-1886, exhibition catalogue. Michigan, 1980 (=R175)
Bibliography of the History of Art’. ?, 1973.
Books on (the youth of) Jean-François Raffaëlli.
- Delteil, Loys: Le peintre-graveur illustré (XIXe siècle). Vol.16: J.F. Raffaëlli. Paris: privately printed, 1923; =R138XVI (=iR40).
- Getty.edu (Thesaurus of artists and people by the Getty Research Institute or: Getty Union List of Artist Names = ULAN; ©2004 J.Paul Getty Trust = iR60)
- Metropolitan (the Metropolitan mentions a photo made by J.J. (or T.T.) around 1899 of (probably) Marius Joseph Raffaelli (18x12cm). The photo is not rendered. There is an inscription on the back: “To Mr. Samuel // P. Avery // J.R. Raffaëlli // New.York // X [?] 99″; Photographer’s blindstamp, recto BC: JJ [TT?] // [coat of arms with crown and wreath] Paris. // 3, Place de la Madeleine”. Under provenance is mentioned: ‘From the sitter to Samuel P. Avery Sr.; […]; Albert Ten Eyck Gardner’. The given date is 17 years after Marius Raffaëlli died and the ‘J.R. Raffaëlli’ more likely refers to J-F = Jean-François.
- Lucien Monod (in his book aide-mémoire de l’amateur et du professionnel he refers to the appendix of Delteil about Marius Raffaëlli, see aR1; see preview on books.google.nl=iR131)
- wikipedia//French-Sudan (article on French-Sudan; = iR3)
- gallica.bnf.fr//En_Guinee_1895 (online version of a publication of Jean-François Raffaëlli in 1895 titled ‘En Guinée’; =iR40)