3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition 1877

 

 

Impressionism: a historical reconstruction

The 3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition

1877

General info

The 3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition:
This was the only of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions, that was called explicitly “impressionist”, namely there was above the entrance door displayed ‘Exposition des Impressionnistes’ (R2,p56+58), but this was not repeated in the catalogue↓. The journal ‘L’Impressionniste’↓ appeared 4 times. There were 18 partakers showing about 249 art-works, which is a bit more than the 241 catalogue numbers. (See slideshow.) About 85% of these art-works were oil paintings, Degas showed several pastels on monotype. Caillebotte was the main organiser, the financer and an important lender. Hoschedé was the most important lender. Monet showed probably 8 paintings depicting the Saint-Lazare station, but there is confusion about the many interiors in the catalogue and the many exteriors Monet depicted. The most prominent work exhibited was Bal du moulin de la Galette↑ of Renoir, a masterpiece in an impressionist painting style. Piette, a friend of Pissarro, was a sort of guest of honour showing 31 art-works. On this page you will find information on the organisation, the partakers, the used techniques, the lenders, the reviews and the results of the 3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition held in 1877 in Paris.

1877, the organisation:
This was the only of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions, that was named explicitly “impressionist”, namely there was above the entrance door displayed ‘Exposition des Impressionnistes’, but this was not repeated in the catalogue. Caillebotte was the main organiser (and financer), supported by Monet, Pissarro and Renoir and did lend 8 art-works. Manet was involved in a diner discussion preliminary to the exposition in January. The hanging was done by Caillebotte, Pissarro and Renoir in a spacious 5 room appartment on the 2nd floor 6, Rue le Peletier, Paris. This location was rented by Caillebotte.  Art-dealer Legrand was the manager.
Sources: R2,p58 +189 +191-198 +203 +262; R5,p104 +105; R90I,p117; iR418; iR426; blog John P. Walsh; .

1877, special features:
The third ‘impressionist’ exposition had 18 partakers showing more than 249 works, see slideshow. This makes the catalogue with 241 numbers quite accurate. Monet showed the most (31) oil paintings, including 8 depicting the Saint-Lazare station. But there is confusion about the many interiors in the catalogue and the many exteriors Monet depicted. Piette, a newcomer and friend of Pissarro, was a sort of guest of honour showing 31 art-works, including 17 aquarelles / gouaches. Degas showed 28 art-works including 9 done with mixed techniques and at least 6 done with monotypes. The most prominent work exhibited was Bal du moulin de la Galette↑ of Renoir.

1877, the partakers:
The third impressionist exposition had  18+1hc-1=18 partakers. Again apparently Mme de Rambure exhibited without being in the catalogue (=hc; R102,p275), but probably she is the same as ‘Jacques François‘, a pseudonym for an unknown woman.
There were several new-comers that only joined this exhibition: Cordey, Franc Lamy, and Maureau. Another new-comers was Piette, of whom posthumously works would be shown in 1879. It was the last time Cézanne joined, he as one of the most well known ‘impressionists’, but only joined 2 of the 8 expositions. Renoir and Sisley would retreat till 1882 and would submit to the Salon again. ‘Jacques François‘ exhibited one more time in 1886 as Comtesse de Rambure. The other partakers would exhibited more often after 1877: Caillebotte, Cals, Degas, Guillaumin, Levert, Monet, Morisot, Pissarro, Rouart and Tillot.

1877, the used techniques:
See link to an overview of the used techniques. See also the link to the slideshow.
Most art-works exhibited were oil paintings. Probably 206, about 82,7% of the total amount of about 249 art-works. Monet showed far out the most oil paintings, probably 31.

The following 3 partakers exhibited aquarelles: Cézanne 3x (no.30-32); Morisot 3x (no.127-129); Piette 17x (no.146-162), probably most of them were gouaches. So in total there were 23 aquarelles exhibited, about 9,2% of the total amount of art-works.

The following partakers exhibited pastels: Morisot showed at least 2 pastels (no.125+126), but probably a third outside the catalogue (=hc). Degas showed several pastels on monotype, see mixed techniques↓. So in total there were just 3 pastels exhibited, about 1,2% of the total amount of art-works.

The following partakers exhibited drawings: Morisot 2x (no.130+131). The numbers 58-60 of Degas ‘Dessins faits à l’encre grasse et imprimés’ probably were monotypes, so I will count them as engravings. So in total there were probably 2 drawings exhibited, less than 1% of the total amount of art-works.

Degas exhibited at least 6 monotypes (nos.58-60). Some maybe were a bit reworked with pastel and than can be seen as mixed techniques. But because the title ‘Dessins faits à l’encre grasse et imprimés’ indicate pure monotypes I count them all as engravings. So in total there were 6 engravings exhibited, about 2,4% of the total amount of art-works. Note: It is curious that not more etchings were exhibited like in 1874 and 1876.
Note: these monotypes were bookillustrations and in that sense also can be seen as applied art.

Degas exhibited according to the catalogue at least 6 monotypes (no.58-60), which I count as engravings. But in reality the numbers 37+39+43+44+45+46+47+56 also were monotypes reworked with pastel. I count these as mixed techniques. No.40 of Degas was a pastel + gouache reworked with thinned oil, also as a mixed technique. So in total there were probably 9 art-works exhibited made with mixed techniques, about 3,6% of the total amount of art-works. Note: No. 41 + 50 of Degas were made of thinned oil, but I count them as normal oil paintings. The suggestions given for no.52 + no.57 have mixed techniques, but because of the uncertainty of the suggestions I don’t count them as mixed techniques.

Was this an impressionist exposition?
When we see Impressionism as a painting style, was this exposition in 1877 than an impressionist exposition? In general we see more paintings having bright colours, see for example Piette. Several artists used a lively and sometimes juxtaposed brushstroke, this includes Pissarro. The Ball du Moulin de la Galette↑ (no.186) of Renoir is a beautiful example of depicting every day life in the city, masterly rendering the leaves filtered light. Still, Monet in his serie of the Saint-Lazare station used many greyish and brownish colours. The colours of Morisot are still more  sub-dued. Guilaumin is alternating in applying the impressionist painting style. So, the 3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition was more impressionistic than the previous expositions, but still in a limited way.

1877, the lenders:
Several works were loans: of Degas (7 out of 26), of Monet (21 out of 31), of Pissarro (8 out of 22), of Renoir (4 out of 21), of Sisley (11 out of 18). So, in total there had been 51 loans, which is about 21% of all the 246 works exhibited.
The most important lenders were de Bellio (6x), Caillebotte (8x), Charpentier (7x) and Hoschedé (18x). De Belio did lend 3 paintings of Monet (nos.95+96+98) and 3 of Sisley (no.214-216). Caillebotte did lend 3 paintings of Degas (no.37+45+47), 1 of Monet (no.115), 3 of Pissarro (no.163+180+181) and 1 of Renoir (no. 185). Charpentier did lend 1 work of Monet (no.106), 1 of Pissarro (no.172), 2 of Renoir (no.187+188) and 3 of Sisley (no.217+218+221). Hoschedé lending 11 works of Monet (see nos.90-112), 4 of Pissarro (no.170+171+175+176) and 3 of Sisley (no.211-213).
Other lenders were Daudet lending 1 work of Renoir (no.189); Duret lending 2 works of Monet (no.94+110) and 1 of Sisley (no.219); Fromenthal lending 1 work of Monet (no.111); Édouard Manet lending 1 work of Monet (no.103) and 1 of Sisley (no.220); Gustave Manet lending 1 work of Monet (no.104); Rouart lending 1 work of Degas (no.50). There were also anonymous  lenders: for Degas Ch. H. (maybe Charles Hayem; no.43), H. H. (maybe Henry Hill; no.38) and V. (no.44).

1877, reviews:
Georges Rivière published in April 4 times a journal calling ‘L’Impressionniste’ (R2,p192). Most critics were positive. Most of the criticism was confined to the work of Caillebotte, Cézanne, Degas, Monet, Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley (R2,p190). Degas, Renoir and Morisot were admired; the landscapists were discussed as a group; on Cézanne the critics were negative (R2, p198+195). There were about 50 reviews, which is half less than 1876 (R5,p104). Most art-critics used the term ‘impressionnistes’, see. That is not strange, because above the entrance door there was displayed ‘Exposition des Impressionnistes’ (R2,p58).

 

1877, the results:
 There were about 8.000 visitors, more than 2x the first two expositions. Zola mentioned an attendance of 500 visitors a day (R2,p427). Still the total visitors were just 8.000 (R2,p192). Caillebotte rented the exposition room (R2,p191; R3,p198); he also paid the many posters (R5,p104). There are no data about the height of the costs nor of the results.

 

General sources:
My main sources are Moffett (1986=R2=aR1), Berson (1996=R90), Dayez (1974=R87=aR2), Rewald (1973=R1), Walther (2013=R3), Roe (2006=R4), Denvir (1993=R5), Monneret (1978-81=R88), Adler (1998=R89). See the link for other general References (=Rx) and to the internet references (=iRx). See here below for additional references (=aRx). See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.

 

Additional references (=aRx):

  1. archive.org//t7cr6bg0d (Online version of Moffett: The New Painting, 1986 =R2=iR19)
  2. culture.gouv.fr//1877 (extended article on the 3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition; =iR424)
  3. www.youtube.com//art_101_1877 (video on the 3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition by Mr. Burgher with extended info, beautiful pictures and irritating clips)
  4. magrasku.de/dritte_impressionisten-ausstellung (page in German on the 3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition; =iR59)
  5. commons.wikimedia.org//third impressionist exhibition (pictures of the more well known paintings that were exhibited; =iR6)
  6. pinterest.com//impressionist exhibition 1877 (13 pictures shown at the 3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition; =iR64)
  7. johnpwalshblog.com//caillebotte 1876 and 1877 (blog on the contribution of Gustave Caillebotte to the 2nd and 3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition)
  8. impressionistarts.com/third (webpage on the 3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition; =iR374)

 

Recommanded citation: “Impressionism, a historical reconstruction: The 3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1877; general info. Last modified 2024/02/24. https://www.impressionism.nl/3rd-impressionist-exposition-1877/.”

 

Note: More info will be added.