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a way to earn money and to become known


Apart from the Salon and their own ‘impressionist’ expositions, exhibiting at art-dealers were a way to promote oneself as an artist and to sell art-works.  The ‘impressionists’ often exhibited at several art-dealers, also works that were rejected for the Salon and/or the Exposition Universelle (of 1867) (R2,p94.) Who were the most important art-dealers for the partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions? I will also add dealers in art-supplies, who also bought and exhibited some pictures. Here you will find some basic information. The art-dealers are mentioned in an alphabetical order.


Successfull sales of Barbizon painters:
When works of Rousseau were rejected at the Salon (1836-39) his works were still exhibited in Galleries. (R59,p109). Diaz and Dupré never had much success at the Salon, still they had good sales through galleries (of Goupil, Brame, Durand-Ruel and George Petit). Diaz even got 8000 Francs for a private sale. (R59, p184) Around the start of the ‘impressionist’ expositions the Barbizon-painters received large sums for their paintings sold through galleries. In that sense they were independent of the Salon. Sales through art-dealers became more and more important.


A family of art-dealers: father Alexandre (1833-1915) and the sons Joseph (1870-1941) and Gaston (1870-1953) (R3,p647)
1863 opening gallery in Rue Laffitte, Paris (R3)
One of the most important dealers in impressionist art (R3)
Befriended with Monet and Renoir (R3)
1886/05: solo exhibition of Giuseppe de Nittis (R2,p427)
1889/02/09: exhibition of 14 works of Sisley (R5,p222)
1889/03/04: solo exhibition of 23 works of Pissarro (R5,p222).
In 1894 there was a large solo exhibition of  Vignon, with 81 paintings, 1 pastel, and 12 catalogue numbers of etchings (aR9=iR19;R3;R272,p7+8;R9;R88).
After 1900 also dealing in art of Vincet van Gogh, Cézanne and other post-impressionists (R3)
1900/January-February: Renoir exhibition with 68 works (R31,p316)
1903/April: Exposition d’Oeuvres de l’Ecole Impressionniste; with Renoir (9x) (R31,p316)
1907/01/21 – 02/02: one man show of Signac with 80 works (34 paintings + 6 studies + 40 watercolours) (aR4;R39,p311).
1917/04/18 – 28: large retrospective of Redon, showing 25 paintings (landscapes after nature), 32 watercolours and 30 drawings (aR6=iR189=R182IV,p338).
1913/March: Renoir exhibition with 52 works (R31,p318).
1921/03/06 – 04/16: Posthumous there was a retrospective of  Vignon with 47 works (R272,p8+31).
1924/01: exhibition of 45 paintings of Lucien Pissarro at the Marcel Bernheim gallery, Rue Caumartin (R312,p182).
1930/05/19 – 30: there was a solo exhibition of Signac (R39,p320;R106,CR36+80)


Bing, Siegfried (1838-1905):
Also called Samuel (R3,p648). Born in Hamburg (R3). Opened his gallery in Paris in 1871. He was specialized in eastern art, particularly from Japan. He also showed contemporary arts and crafts. His gallery became the headquarters of L’Art Nouveau. Offered Impressionists (and later post-impressionists and symbolists) to exhibit works in his gallery.
1889/05/03 he organised an exhibition in London; it included many works of Morisot.
1898: Jean-François Raffaëlli exhibited 30 (coloured) etchings (R88); according to Alexandre it were 40 etchings (aR7,p160).
1898: there had been a solo exhibition of Legros his etchings (R88).
1902/06/02: first one man show of Signac (R106,p419-421:R39,p301-323).


Boussod, Valadon et Cie:
Also called: Goupil-Boussod-Valadon. Etienne (Emile) Boussod and Pierre Valadon had a gallery at the Place de l’Opéra and at the Boulevard Montmartre. They first dealt in Salon paintings. 1879: Theo van Gogh took over the Boulevard Montmartre gallery and started to sell impressionist works of Cézanne (1x), Degas (23x), Gauguin (18x), Monet (24x), Pissarro (23x), Renoir (4x) and Sisley (7x) and also of Manet (5x).
At the 8th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1886 Emile Boussod lent 2 pastels of Degas (no.19+20).
1887 onwards the galerie began to buy paintings of Sisley.
In December 1887 Theo van Gogh organised a small exhibition with works of Gauguin, Pissarro and Guillaumin (R181,p608).
1888/June-July: exhibition called ‘dix marines d’Antibes de M. Cl. Monet‘.
November 1888 Theo van Gogh organised the first solo-exhibition of Gauguin without success (R181;R36,p14;R49).
1889/02: solo exhibition of Monet with 19? works.
1890: first one-man show of Forain with only drawings at Boussod-Valadon (R50,p29)
before 1891: Theo van Gogh, who died 1891/01, had bought works from Redon and other modern painters. His boss Boussod complaint that it brought his gallery to discredit. (R1,p560).
1891/02/23: an auction sale of 30 paintings of Gauguin; the revenue amounted to 9860 francs (R36,p81;R49;R181). Untill two days before this sale, there had been an exhibition at Boussod et Valadon (R181).
1892/05/04 – 1892/06/18: first solo exhibition of Morisot (R100,p289;R5,p185;R42,p92).
Sources: R3,p650;R90II,p285;R22IV,p1017;R42,p92.
1893: Jean-François Raffaëlli published with Boussod et Valadon a serie of 6 colour etchings titled ‘les Petits gens’ (aR7,p160), probably the same, called by Delteil, as ’types de petite gens’ and dated 1894 (aR2=R138XVI,no8-13).
1893/03/13: solo exhibition of Sisley.


Brame, Hector-Henri-Clément (1831-1899):
Art-dealer. Did loan 1 aquarelle of Jean-Baptiste Millet in 1876 (no.138) and 2 works of Degas in 1879 (no. 57+61) for the ‘impressionist’ expositions (R90II,p286).

1864/06/27 Manet exhibits two works in the gallery of Cadart (R5,p30).
1865/06/01 Manet exhibits 3 works in the gallery of Cadart (R5,p35).
1867/04 Morisot exhibited in the gallery of Cadart (R5,p43).

1869, Autumn: Renoir exhibits some paintings in the art-shop of Carpentier at 8, Boulevard Montmartre in Paris (R5,p55; R31,p315).

1886/04/14 Pissarro showed a pointillist painting at the gallery of Closet (R5,p149).

1904/12/13: second one man show of Signac, who is admired by Matisse (R39,p310).

Durand-Ruel, Paul (1831-1922):
Paul Durand-Ruel was the most important art-dealer for the Impressionists and organised many exhibitions showing their pictures, namely in London (1870-75), at solo exhibitions (1883 onwards) and in New York (1886). See separate page.

In 1872 Giuseppe de Nittis rendered for the Salon the address of the art-dealer Goupil (iR1)

Monet exhibited a painting that were rejected by the Salon of 1867 in the gallery of Hagerman (R22,p66; R2,p94).

Monet exhibited a painting that were rejected by the Salon of 1867 in the gallery of Latouche (R22,p66; R2,p94).
Monet exhibited a Salon rejected painting in the gallery of Latouche (R22,p77).


Gallery at 22bis, Rue Lafitte, Paris.
1877: manager of the 3rd impressionist exposition.
1877/ 05/28: expert auction Hôtel Drouot (R2,p262)
1878/03/25: meeting at his gallery preparing a new impressionist exposition and discussing preconditions; Caillebotte, Cassatt, Degas, Desboutin, Guillaumin, Levert, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley, Tillot were invited; Morisot and Cézanne also, but were absent; Renoir having submitted to the Salon, was not invited (R2,p244/5)
1875, Renoir painted his daughter Delphine in their home in Rue Rocroy (CR141) and later again in 1876 (R30,no184+230)


Père Martin (+/-1810 – +/- 1880):
Père Martin dealt occasionally the works of Corot and more or less exclusively those of Jongkind (R1,p214). He started to deal in works of the ‘impressionists’ in the late 1860s (R1,p214). Around 1868 he paid only 20 to 40fr. for the works of Pissarro, reselling them at prices between 60 to 80fr. For Monet his pictures he could ask up to 100fr., for works of Cézanne just up to 50fr. (R1,p214). In the store of Père Martin, at the Rue Mogador, Lépine did meet Henri Rouart, Count Doria, Cals, Vignon, Jean-François Millet and Corot (aR4,p14;R45). Père Martin sold works of Lépine (aR2).
1874: bought La Loge of Renoir for 425fr (R1,p334)
1874: didn’t want to deal anymore in works of Pissarro if he continued to paint in his ‘heavy, common style with that muddy pallette of his’ (R1,p334)
1876: did loan: 4 paintings of Sisley (2IE-1876-237 +239 +240 +243)
around 1877 he criticised the ‘impressionists’, which did cost Pissarro buyers (R1,p406+414)
1878/02/15 there was a sale of 52 paintings and studies of Vignon (iR26).
1886: contacts with Vincent van Gogh (R1,p541).


Martinet, Louis:
Louis Martinet had founded the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts to promote the credibility of mixed exhibitions.
Between 1862-65 he held a permanent exhibition in his gallery. Corot, Daubigny and Manet were part of this group (R3,p56)
1863/03/01 Manet showed 14 works in the gallery of Louis Martinet (R5,p24)
1864/02/04 the first(?) exhibition was held in the gallery of Louis Martinet (R5,p28)
1865/02/03 Manet submitted 9 paintings, of which only 2 are accepted (R5,p34)
1886/12/03 – 1887/01: exhibition including works of Pissarro, Seurat and Signac at the Boulevard des Italiens. (R5,p150;R106,p419-421:R39,p301-323)


Petit, Georges:
For several partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions around the mid 1880s the art-dealer Georges Petit became an alternative for the art-dealer Durand-Ruel. For some the Exposition International de peinture (et de sculpture) held at the Georges Petit gallery, became an alternative for their own ‘impressionist’ expositions. Other exhibitions held at Georges Petit were the exhibitions of the Société des Pastellist Français , the Société Nouvelle de Peintres et de Sculpteurs and several more. See seperate pages.


Rosenberg gallery:
October 1908 Zandomeneghi exhibited, showing 38 paintings and 11 pastels (aR1;R88;R204,p398).


Tanguy, Julien-Francois (1825-1894):
Better known as ‘Père Tanguy‘. Before 1870 he was a travelling paint salesman, often active in the Fontainebleau region (R1,p301). In 1870 he moved to Paris (R3,p700). Père Tanguy was an anarchist and communist; he was a volunteer with the troops of the Commune (more info); he was later deported to Brest (R3;R1,p301). The intervention of Henri Rouart saved him from a death sentence (R1,p301). In 1873 he returned to Paris; started a merchandise in paint and later in paintings at Rue Clauzel, Paris (R3; R5,p192;R1,p301), he also organized (small) exhibitions here (R3,p200). He traded painting materials for paintings (R3; R5,p192). He supported Cézanne (R3; R5,p192); provided him with paints and canvases in exchange for some paintings (R1,p301).
1883: met Signac (R39,p299).
1886: friendship with Vincent van Gogh, who portrayed him (R3)
His shop became a meeting place for Cézanne, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Pissarro, Seurat and Van Gogh.
1894/06/02: auction of his collection at Hôtel Drouot (R116I,p428;R5,p195;R3)


Vollard, Ambroise (1867-1939):
Important art-dealer; successor of Theo van Gogh (R3,p702).
1887-1910ca: Ambroise Vollard was Forain’s main dealer and patron (R43,p23).
1893 opened his first gallery at 41, Rue Lafitte, Paris (R3).
1895 organized here also exhibitions (R3).
1894 met Renoir (R31).
sold work of Degas, Pissarro, Renoir (R3).
1895 first solo exhibition Cézanne (R3, p653; iR194).
1896: Ambroise Vollard published a suite of Guillaumin his lithographs (iR70;R179,p57).
1898 there was an exhibition with works of Gauguin (R49)..
1899 moved to 6, Rue Laffitte, Paris (R3).
first exhibition of Van Gogh (R3).
1900-1905: cellar diners with Degas, Cézanne, Forain, Redon, Renoir and Bonnard, who made a painting of such a diner (R43,p58;R50,p55).
1901 solo exhibition of Pissarro (R3).
In 1903 there was a retrospective with 50 paintings of Gauguin (R49).
1904 solo exhibition of Matisse (R3).
Published monographs of Cézanne, Degas and Renoir (R3)

B. Weil:
In 1911 (1911/02/06-03/18) there was a posthumous solo exhibition with works of Henry Somm at the B. Weil Galerie in Paris (aR5=iR261=R246).


The sources I used you’ll find in the references. My base sources are the lexicon of Walther (R3,p642-705) and the data of Denvier (R5). See also the sources at the bottom of the main pages on the partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions. For other general references (=R) see. For other references to internet sites (=iR) see.


Recommanded citation: Meta-Impressionism: Art-dealers, a way to earn money and to become known. Last modified 2024/03/01.

Note: additional info will follow.