Awards

 

Please be reluctant, when you quote from this webpage, which is under construction.
The information is incomplete and maybe partly incorrect.

 

Meta-Impressionism

Awards

Légion d’Honneur

Purchases and assignments

Tribute expositions

 

Introduction:
The presentation of awards was an important componant of the Salon, it’s successor the Salon de la Sociéte des Artistes Français’ and at the Exposition Universelle. Another way of awarding an artist, was when the state purchased an art-work of an artist or rendered an assignment. The most prestigious award was when an artist was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur. Another form of an award were the (posthumous) tribute expositions at the École des Beaux-Arts. On a seperate pages you will find an overview of highly awarded artists, and a chronological overview and pictures of the awarded paintings.
On this page you will find short info on these awards and overviews of which partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions was awarded. See link for the page on the awarded art-works.
(Note: Some of the information will be rendered in the future.)

Prices at the Salon:
Since 1791 at every Salon medals were awarded by an awards jury. (Another source mentions this was since 1793; iR387). There were first, second and third class medals, also mentioned as gold, silver and bronze medal. Sometimes there were special awards. From 1863 till 1870 there also was a ‘mention honorable’, a ‘prix du Salon’ and a ‘grande médaille d’honneur’ (R88II,p388;iR1;R231;R5,p20). These prices had several catagories, like Historical Landscape (sinde 1816), etching (R61,p14). The mention ‘hors concours‘ meant that the artist no longer could be nominated for a price (because they already received them in the past) (iR1). (I understand this only applies after a first or second class medal.) The prices were awarded for the seperate arts, so for painting, engraving, sculpting. This system of prices was continued when the Salon was organised by the ‘Société des Artistes Français’ (=SdAF) onwards.
In 1877 there were 21 medals handed of which 9 went to pupils of Cabanel en 6 to pupils of Gérôme (R88II,p398).

 

Prices for the ‘Impressionists’ at the Salon:
Some partakers of the partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions received prices at the Salon and it’s successor the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français. Some afterwards exhibited ‘hors concours’. Here below you will find an alphabetical overview:

  • Astruc : exhibited hors concours in 1892 and 1897 onwards (iR1)
  • Boudin received a 3rd class medal in 1881 and a 2nd class medal in 1883; he exhibited hors concours 1885 onwards (iR1;R161,p70;R231).
  • Félix Bracquemond: received in 1866 a medal for an oil painting and in 1868 a medal for an etch (R73,p8+25;iR1;R259); exhibited ‘exempté’ in 1868+69+70; Received in 1872 2nd class medal and in 1881 a 1st class medal; exhibted hors concours 1881 onwards; received in 1884 a Médaille d’Honneur (R88).
  • Brandon: In 1865 he received a medal (of History) at the Salon (iR1;iR69;R87;iR3). Some sources state that in 1867 Brandon received a medal for the ‘Portugese Synagoge at Amsterdam’ (aR1;iR69;iR3). Note: the preface in the posthumous catalogue suggests that both medals were given for retracing the life of Saint-Brigit (aR4) and La Gazette mentions the medals were for genre painting (R259). Maybe Brandon received the 1867 medal because his serie of mural pictures of Sainte-Brigitte, first shown at the Salon of 1865, was exhibited at the Exposition Universelle (R231/iR19). He exhibited ‘exempt’ in 1868 + 69 + 70 and also in 1889 (iR1).
  • In 1880 Colin received a medal of Honneur at the Salon (iR4;aR4;aR17).
  • In 1879 Desboutin received a 3rd class medal (for his etchings) (R231/iR40;R88I,p196;aR9). In 1882 and 1883 he exhibited exempté with his etchings (iR1). In 1883 he received a ‘mention honorably’ for a painting (aR9).
  • Franc Lamy received an honorable mention in 1887, a 3rd class medal in 1888, a 2nd class medal in 1890 and since 1891 he exhibited hors concours for the painting section (iR1;iR4;iR3).
  • In 1861 Legros was succesfull and received a mention. In 1867 and 1868 he received a medal for genre painting (R259;aR6).
  • Lepic was awarded a third-class medal in 1877 (iR69;iR3;R87). He exhibited ‘exempté’ from 1882-88. (iR1)
  • Lépine received an honorable mention in 1884 (iR23;aR5) and in 1889 he was awarded a third-class medal (R21,p279;aR2;aR8).
  • In 1866 Alfred Meyer won a medal for painting on email (R259;iR1;iR69;R3;aR1;R16;R87;R88). In 1868 / 69 / 70 / 74 / 75 / 82 / 83 he exhibited ‘exempté’ and 1884-1888 ‘hors concours’. Mostly this means that Meyer more often received medals, but the ‘Explication’ only mentions the 1866 medal (R337).
  • Auguste Ottin received a 2nd class medal in 1842 and a 1st class medal in 1846 (iR1;R259;R3;aR4;R231).
  • Jean-François Raffaëlli received an honorable mention in 1885 (iR1)

Prices at the Exposition Universelle:
Also at the Expositions Universelle (the World exhibitions) prices were awarded. An artist could receive an honorable mention and just like at the Salon, there were first, second and third class medals awarded. Here below you will find an alphabetical overview:

Prices for the ‘impressionists’ at the Exposition Universelle:
Several partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions received prices at the Exposition Universelle.

  • Astruc: 1889: honorable mention; 1900: 3rd class medal (iR5;iR35;R231)
  • Boudin received in 1889 a golden medal (iR24;R161,p79;R3;R74;iR3;iR22).
  • Félix Bracquemond: In 1900 he received a grande medaille d’honneur (Grand Prix de Gravure) (R3,p650; R16,p81;R88;aR18)
  • Brandon: Some sources state that in 1867 Brandon received a medal for the ‘Portugese Synagoge at Amsterdam’ (aR1;iR69;iR3). Note: the preface in the posthumous catalogue suggests that both medals were given for retracing the life of Saint-Brigit (aR4) and La Gazette mentions the medals were for genre painting (R259). Maybe Brandon received the 1867 medal because his serie of mural pictures of Sainte-Brigitte, first shown at the Salon of 1865, was exhibited at the Exposition Universelle (R231/iR19).
  • In 1889 Colin received a silver medal (or: médaille d’argent) at the Exposition Universelle (aR17;iR5;iR4;aR4; note: not at the Salon, where he didn’t exhibit in 1889 (iR1). In 1900 works of Gustave-Henri Colin were exhibited at the Exposition Universelles et Internationales (R9;iR107), in the same year he received a gold medal at the ‘Salon’ (iR4), probably this should be the Exposition Universelle.
  • Desboutin exhibited in 1889 received a 2nd class medal (R85XIII,p33;R231). In 1900 at the Exposition Décennale he exhibited 3 portraits (R158,p276) and he received the large price at l’Exposition Universelle (R88;R3;R9).
  • Franc Lamy received an honorable mention in 1889 and in 1900 a 3rd class medal (iR1;iR4;R3;R88;R9)
  • In 1889 Lépine had exhibited 2 paintings at the Exposition Universelle (at the Oeuvres d’Art) and received a golden medal (R231/iR40;R9;iR3;aR1;R3;aR5).
  • Auguste Ottin received a 2nd class medal in 1867 (R259;R3;aR9;iR23;iR4;aR4;R87;R88;iR1;R231)
  • Jean-François Raffaëlli received at the Exposition Universelle in 1889 a first class medal (for painting?) (iR1) and according to some sources he again received a golden medal (for his colour etchings), but in the Salon database this is only noted 1 time (iR1;aR7,p174).
  • In 1900 Vidal received a bronze medal with studies and pastels (R88;iR69;R3;R9;iR60;aR2).
  • Zandomeneghi exhibited 5 paintings and 3 pastels in 1889, all without title (R231); he received a ‘mention honorable’ (R88II,p157).

 

Légion d’Honneur:
An important award that an artist could receive was to be appointed in the Légion d’Honneur. More than once this was because of achievements at the Salon or at the Exposition Universelle. First an artist was appointed Chevalier (knight), than Officier, than Commandeur, than Grand Officier and at last one could receive the ‘Grande Croix’ (iR5;iR1;R231).

Impressionists in the Légion d’Honneur:
The following partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions were appointed in the Légion d’Honneur. Some of the ‘impressionists’ refused to be appointed in the Légion d’Honneur. Here below you will find an alphabetical overview:

  • Astruc as Chevalier in 1890 (iR26) in 1898 (iR35) or 1900 (iR5).
  • Boudin in 1892/10 as Chevalier (R161,p92;iR24;R161,p81;R74;iR3;iR22).
  • Félix Bracquemond was appointed Chevalier in 1882 and Officier in 1889.
  • 1904/12: Cassatt received the title Chevalier (R44,p141+39;R3).
  • In  1907 Colin was appointed in the Legion d’Honneur (iR17) as Chevalier (iR5;aR4); according to another source he was appointed so in 1899 and in 1907 as Officier (aR17).
  • 1895/06/08 Desboutin was appointed Chevalier (R3;iR3;R88;R9;aR9;aR10;R158,p156). This let to a quarrel with Degas and they wouldn’t see each other anymore (R158,p157/8).
  • Forain was made Chevalier in 1893 and Commandeur in 1928 (R50,p31+62;R43,p58;aR4;aR21,p13)
  • Guillaumin was appointed Chevalier 1911/12/07 (R179,p59)
  • Franc Lamy was appointed Chevalier in 1893 (not in 1892; iR5) and in 1914 Officier (iR4;iR5;iR1)
  • Lebourg was appointed Chevalier 1903/06/27 and Officier in 1924/04/22 (iR1;iR3;iR24;iR65;iR22;aR1); one source mentions he was appointed Chevalier in 1906 (iR1)
  • Auguste Ottin was appointed Chevalier in 1867/06/29 (R259;R3;aR9;iR23;iR4;aR4;R87;R88;iR1;R231)
  • Jean-François Raffaëlli was appointed Chevalier in 1889 and Officier in 1906 (iR1;iR22;aR7,p173).
  • Renoir  1900/08/16 as Chevalier, 1911/10/20 as Officier and 1919/02/19 as Commandeur (R31,p308-314).
  • Redon was apointed in the Légion d’Honneur is 1903 (iR3).
  • 1933: Schuffenecker was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur (R54,p162).
  • Signac was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur; 1911/10/25 as Chevalier; 1933/12/30 as Commandeur (R39,p312+322); I assume he was appointed Officier somewhere in between.

Purchases and assignments by the State:
Another form of award was when a work exhibited at the Salon, afterwards was bought by the State (or the Emperor). Mostly, later on it was displayed in one of the French musea. Another award was when an artist, after success at the Salon, was assigned by the State to make an art-work, for example a mural for a public building.

Purchases of the ‘impressionists’:
The state purchased some of the art-works of the partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions. Here I will render a chronological  overview, that will be extended in the future:

  • In 1878 CR320↓ of Degas was purchased by the Muséum in Pau (M170;iR23).
  • In 1883 2CR887↓ of Giuseppe de Nittis was purchased by the State for 12.000fr and placed in the Musée du Luxembourg (M1;iR357=M5).
  • In 1886 + 1888 + 1892 the state purchased paintings made by Boudin.
  • 1889: the state purchased ‘1888, Sbr, Novillada en Biscaye (young bullfighting in Biscaye), 161×201, MBA Pau’ of Gustave Colin (iR23;M170).
  • In 1892 the state bought ‘Jeunes filles au piano’ a painting by Renoir for 4000 francs, which denoted an official recognition (R31,no.91).
  • In 1894 a painting by Morisot.
  • 1934/12: the painting Garden at Dartmouth, painted in 1922, of  Lucien Pissarro was acquired by the French State for 7.000fr (R312,p207).

Assignments for the ‘Impressionists’:
Some of the partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions received assignments from the state.

  • Félix Bracquemond was commanded to make an etch of the portrait of Erasme. It was refused for the Salon of 1863 and exhibited at the Salon des Refusés. In 1864 it was exhibited as yet at the Salon and then it was already part of the Louvre. Another print was exhibited at the first ‘impressionist’ exposition, see 1IE-1874-25-4.
  • Auguste Ottin regularly had commissions from the state (iR1;R87;R88).

 

Posthumous tribute exhibitions at the École des Beaux-Arts:
Some artists were honored with a posthumous exhibition at the École des Beaux-Arts.

  • 1867/02/12: a posthumous solo exhibition of Ingres (R5,p42)
  • 1874/05/01: Prud’hon with 518 works (R2,p117)
  • 1882/03/09: posthumous solo exhibition of Courbet (R5,p128/9)
  • 1884/01/06-28 posthumous solo exhibition of Manet with 179 works (R5,p138; R39,p299)
  • 1885/03/06 – 04/15: posthumous solo exhibition of Delacroix (R5,p142; R39,p300)
  • 1899/01/09 – 30: major retrospective with 457 works (364 paintings; 73 pastels; 20 watercolours) of Boudin (aR10=iR40;R161,p87;iR65)
  • 1902/12/11 – 31: there was a retrospective exposition of Desboutin at the École des Beaux-Arts (R88;aR7;aR9), according to Clément-Janin with 194 paintings, 477 (or 297) engravings and a legion of drawings (or 34) (R158,p112+167).
  • In 1906 the SNBA dedicated an exhibition to the oeuvre of Colin in a special room (iR1;R87).
  • 1923: there was an exposition held with works of Desboutin at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts (R88)

 

Sources:
My main sources are Monneret (1978-81=R88II,p386-403), Cuzin (1982=R97), Brettell (1987=R210). Other sources are Rewald (1973=R1), Walther (2013=R3), Denvir (1993=R5). See the link for other general References (=Rx) and to the internet references (=iRx). See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.

 

 

Recommanded citation: “Meta-Impressionism: Awards; Légion d’honneur; purchases and assigments; tribute expositions. Last modified 2024/05/11.  https://www.impressionism.nl/awards/

Note: additional info and pictures will follow.