Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Here you will find an account of which paintings Degas has exhibited at the ‘Impressionist’ Expositions in 1874, 1876, 1877, 1879, 1880, 1881 and 1886. As indicated earlier the indication of a painting is often uncertain. Often there are more than one options. In my choices I mainly have followed the suggestions of Moffett (1986=R2), Berson (1996=R90) and Dony (19x), they mostly follows the Catalogue Raisonné of Lemoisne (1946=R114). Further on I made connections between the french titles in the catalogues and the contemporary titles of the paintings. These suggestions are very uncertain or just a suggestion to compare. (See here for the general references (=R) and here for references to internet pages (=iR).
The first ‘impressionist’ exposition 1874:
- catalogue numbers 54-63
- in total 10 works exhibited, 5x oil paintings, 4x drawing / dessin, 1x pastel
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p120), of Berson (R90II,p7/8+22) and Dony (.
1IE-1874-54 Examen de danse au théâtre ; appartient à M. Faure
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson mentions that CR341 has been suggested, now in the musée d’Orsay, but this work was no part of the Faure collection and it does not accurately fit the subject (R90II,p7). In the reviews it is not also clear if there are referrences to no.54, 55, 56 or 60. As an uncertain suggestion I give 1873-74, CR340, Salle de danse (ballet rehearsal on stage), 65×81, Orsay (iR2;iR59;R26,no470); a work Moffett suggests for 2IE-1876-44. Other options for a dancing exam on stage in the theater are two other works that look much alike: 1874ca, CR400, The Rehearsal of the Ballet on stage, thinned oil, 54×73, Metropolitan, (iR22;R26,no466); Moffett renders this work for the drawing exhibited under no. 60. And: 1873-74, CR498, The Rehearsal on Stage, pastel, 53×72, Metropolitan, (iR2;R26,no469); Pickvance suggests this work for 4IE-1879-hc. A more uncertain option is: 1875ca, CR365, Ballet Rehearsal, 55×68, monotype gouache pastel, NAMA Kansas city, (iR2;R26,no485). This one resembles the drawing of no.60. Compare also 2IE-1876-37 ‘examen de dance’ and 5IE-1880-40 ‘examen de dance’.
1IE-1874-55 Classe de danse ; appartient à M. Brandon
Moffett and Berson suggest CR297, now: 1870-2ca, CR297, The Dancing Class, 20×27, Metropolitan (iR2;iR59;R90II,p7+22;R26,no296;R47,p50). Compare another work with the same title: 3IE-1877-48. Berson mentions that an earlier suggestion was CR341, but a remark of Burty calling it a ‘tout petit tableau’ (Eng.: a very small picture)’ confirmed the choice for CR297 (R90II,p7). But when I look at the review of Burty (1874/05/30), which was in English, he mentions as a general remark ‘he only exercises on small scale’, but not explicitly referring to no.55 (R90I,p10). So I wonder what the source is Berson is using.
1IE-1874-56 Intérieur de coulisse ; appartient à M. Rouart
Moffett mentions Degas destroyed this painting. To compare I render: 1882-5, CR?,dans les coulisses, pastel, 66×38, Axx (iR15;R26,no630). A work that was also in the Henri Rouart collection, no.17.5 in the 1912 auction catalogue. Compare also 3IE-1877-53; 4IE-1879-47/48; 6IE-1881-19hc.
1IE-1874-57 Blanchisseuse ; appartient à M. Brandon
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson mentions that CR 361 and 329 have been suggested, but leaves the work unidentified. My uncertain suggestion is 1869-73ca, CR216, La repasseuse, Woman Ironing, 93×73, NP Munich, (iR2;R26,no364;R47,p42). Degas showed several works with women ironing: 1IE-1874-57 + 61; 2IE-1876-41 + 49 + 50 + 54 + 59; 4IE-1879-64; 6IE-81-19. In the reviews it sometimes was not clear if it referred to no. 57 or 61.
1IE-1874-58 Départ de course, esquisse, dessin
Eng.: departure of the race, study, drawing. Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion, nor does Berson. Degas showed in total 4 works of race horses with the Impressionists: 1IE-1874-58 + 59 + 63 and 4IE-1879-63. In the reviews it is not always clear if it referred to no.58 or 59. As an uncertain suggestion I give: 1862ca, CR?,At the Races, dr, 34×48, CAI Williamstown (iR10;R27,p26). The drawing has similarities with an oil painting I will also render to compare: 1860-2, CR76, At the Races, the Start, 32×46, HAM Cambridge (iR2;R26,no164). Other options are: 18xx, CR?,Jockey with Horse, dr, 25×29, A20180830 (iR10). To compare I like also to mention the oil paintings: 1871-73ca, CR317, Le champs de courses (Before the Race), 27×35, NGA Washington, (iR2;R26,no343). And: 1862-80, CR101, the gentlemen’s race, before the start, 48×62, Orsay (iR2;R26,no209).
1871IE-4-59 Faux départ, dessin
Eng.: False start, drawing. Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson mentions that CR262 has been suggested, but leaves the work unidentified. As a very uncertain suggestion I give: 18xx, CR?, Jockey on Horse, dr, 19×23, Barnes Merion (iR10;iR90). To compare I also render an oil painting: 1869-72, CR258, The False Start, 32×40, YUAG New Haven, (iR2;R26,no191). See also number 58.
1IE-1874-60 Répétition de ballet sur la scène, dessin ; appartient à M. Mulbacher
Moffett suggests CR400; see Dony nr. 466; technique: diluted oil, so not a drawing. Berson calls this suggestion ‘incorrectly’. She suggests CR340, now: xx (R90II,p7+22). But this work is a ‘grisaille’, so not a drawing. To compare I render a monotype: 1874-6ca, CR?, The Ballet Master, chalk watercolour on monotype, 56×69, NGA Washington (iR10;iR33;iR68). This work resembles another monotype with gouache and pastel: 1875ca, CR365, Ballet Rehearsal, 55×68, monotype gouache pastel, NAMA Kansas city, (iR2;R26,no485)
1IE-1874-61 Une blanchisseuse, pastel ; appartient à M. Brandon
Moffett suggests Brame and Reff nr62, now in Musée d’Orsay, Berson confirms this suggestion, now: xx (R90II,p7+22). I could not Identify this work. As an uncertain suggestion I render: 1870-86ca, CR277, Woman Ironing, pastel, xx, private, (iR2;iR10;iR13;R26,no365). See more info no.57.
1IE-1874-62 après le bain, étude, dessin
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson mentions that CR376 is suggested. Degas has made many drawings of women leaving the bath. Most are (probably) made later. As a very uncertain option I give an undated drawing: 18xx, CR?,After The Bath, dr, xx, xx (iR10).
1IE-1874-63 Aux courses en province ; appartient à M. Faure
Moffett (R2,p127) suggests CR281; Berson confirms; see Dony nr. 203. Now: 1869-72ca, CR281, At the Races in the Countryside, 37×56, MFA Boston (iR2;iR59;R90II,p7+22). See also no.58.
The second ‘impressionist’ exposition 1876:
- catalogue numbers 36-59
- nr 51 = various studies, so at least two works
- maybe number 52 was not exhibited
- in total Degas exhibited about 25 works, of which 23 oil paintings, 1 drawing / dessin, 1 pastel
- 2x indication of place (New-Orleans, nr. 36 + 40)
- 3x indication of time, season or weather
- 4x a study
- 1 loan (appartient à…)
- 7x portraits; 6x dance scenes (no. 37, 44, 45, 47,48, 51); 5x women ironing (no. 41, 49, 50, 54, 59)
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p161) and Berson (R90II,p34-36+48-50).
2IE-1876-36 Portrait dans un bureau (Nouvelle-Orléans)
Moffett (R2,p170) suggests CR320, Berson confirms; now: 1873, CR320, le bureau de coton à la Nouvelle Orléans, 73×92, MM Pau (iR2;R90II,p48+34;R26,no356). This work has been reviewd many times. Degas renders many black-white contrasts and a lot of detail (R47,p62). This work was bought by the museum in Pau in 1878 (R47,p66;R90II,p34).
2IE-1876-37 Examen de danse ; Appartient à M. F…
Moffett and Berson suggest CR397; now: 1874-6ca, CR397, the dance class, 83×76, Metropolitan (iR2;R90II,p48+34;R47,p64;R26,no488).
2IE-1876-38 Portrait de Mr. E.M…
(E.M. =Eugène Manet, married with Berthe Morisot, brother of Edouard Manet). Moffett (R2,p172) suggests as options CR339 or 392. Berson affirms CR339: 1874, CR339, Eugene Manet (married with Berthe Morisot), 65×81, private (iR2;iR15;R90II,p48+34;R26,no371). This work was probably made in Degas his studio. Lemoisne suggested CR392 because it also depicts Ernest May, but a lettre of Degas to Morisot confirms CR339 (R90II,p34).
2IE-1876-39 Portrait de femme (ébauche)
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson suggests CR213, now: 1869, CR213, Mme Theodore Gobillard, nee Yves Morisot, 55×65, Metropolitan (iR2;iR59;R90II,p48+34;R26,no249). Note: the title doesn’t indicate the painting is a studie / sketch, but it looks that way. Compare no.42.
2IE-1876-40 Cour d’une maison (Nouvelle-Orléans, esquissé)
Moffett and Berson suggest CR309; see Dony nr. 346. Now: 1872-73, CR309, Children on a Doorstep, 60×75, OC Copenhagen (iR2;R90II,p49+34;R26,no346;R47,p60).
Moffett suggests as options CR687 or 686 or 785 or 786; see Dony nr. 596 or 595 or 624 or 625. All these works are dated later. Clayson suggests Degas reworked his laundresses later (R2,p158). Berson suggests CR687, now: xx (R90II,p49+34). Berson mentions that CR686 is also suggested, but the review of Baignères confirms CR687 more (R90II,p35).
I render an earlier work: 1870-2ca, CR278, Blanchisseuses souffrant des dents, Washerwomen, 16×21, MuMa (iR8;iR11;R26,no273). More info see 1IE-1874-57.
2IE-1876-42 Ebauche de portrait (pastel)
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson omits this works. This work was not reviewed. My uncertain suggestion is: 1869, CR214, Mme. Theodore Gobilllard, nee Yves Morisot, pastel, 48×30, Metropolitan, (iR2;R26,no250). This work was also shown at the Salon in 1870. This is the same woman as CR213, see no.39. Another option could be CR208 ‘Madame Camus at the piano’ (R26,no246) or CR209 ‘Madame Camus’ (R26,no247), compare no.43.
2IE-1876-43 Portrait, le soir
Moffett suggests CR271 (R2,p173). Now: 1869-70, CR271, Madame Camus with a Fan, 73×92, NGA Washington (iR2;iR59;R90II,p49+35;R26,no258). This work was also shown at the Salon of 1870. Berson renders this work as a second option. Her first option is CR362, now: xx (R90II,p49+35;)
2IE-1876-44 Salle de danse
2IE-1876-45 Salle de danse
Moffett suggests for no.44 or 45 CR340 (R2,p174); see Dony nr. 470. But this is a rehearsal on stage, so I don’t follow Moffett in this one. I do suggest CR340 for 1IE-1874-54. Berson also disagrees with Moffett and suggests CR340 for 1IE-1874-60. Berson suggests CR362, now: xx (R90II,p49+35;). She refers to the review of D’Olby (1876/) who writes ‘ ‘ (R90I,px).
As first uncertain option I give CR298, see Dony nr. 292 (R47,p59); maybe this picture also is an option for 1IE-1874-54 and 2IE-1876-37. As second option to compare I give a later work: 1880-85ca, CR820, Dancers in the Classroom, 39×88, CAI Williamstown (iR2;R26,no819).
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson omits this work. There are no reviews of this work. As one of many possibilities I render: 1872, CR305, woman with a vase of flowers, (Estelle Musson, Mme Rene de Gas), 75×54, Orsay (iR2;R26,no341). My suggestion corresponds the fact Degas exhibited two other paintings he made in New Orleans (no. 36+40).
Moffett and Berson suggest for no.47 or 48 CR512 (R2,p149), Now: 1876-80ca, CR512, Yellow Dancers (in the Wings), 73×60, AI Chicago, (iR2;R26,no726). As a second very uncertain option I render: 1876-83, CR?, Dancers Backstage, 24×19, NGA Washington (iR2). Note: the date of many of Degas’ paintings of dancers in the wings are very uncertain. Compare also: 1IE-1874-56; 3IE-1877-52; 6IE-1881-hc1.
2IE-1876-49 Blanchisseuse (silhouette)
Moffett and Berson suggest CR356 (R2,p175); see Dony nr. 368. Now: 1873-4ca, CR356, Woman Ironing (Silhouette), 54×39, Metropolitan, (iR2;iR59;R90II,p50+35;R26,no368;R47,p61). See info 2IE-1IE-1874-57.
2IE-1876-50 Blanchisseuse portant du linge
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson notes that he probably intended to show CR410, but probably did not untill he showed it as 4IE-1879-64 (R90II,p35). Now: 1876-78, CR410, laundress carrying linen, thinned oil, 46×61, private (iR2;R26,no437). But note the catalogue uses the singular ‘blanchisseuse’ whereas on this picture there are two woman carrying laundry. Moffett suggests this work for 4IE-1879-64. So in stead I will render to compare another ‘blanchisseuse’ (who is not carrying linnen): 1876-87, CR685, Woman Ironing, thinned oil, 81×66, (?)NGA Washington, (iR2;iR8;R27,no597).
2IE-1876-51 Divers croquis de danseuses
Eng.: Several studies of dancers. Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. The plural ‘divers’ suggests two or more studies. Berson suggests CR388, now: xx and CR-, now: xx (R90II,p50+35;)
I render two very uncertain suggestions: 1874-75ca, CR479, Dancer (study), 41×33, Hermitage, (iR2;R26,no480); and: 1873, CR?,Seated Dancer in Profile (study), essence drawing, xx, Orsay, (iR2).
2IE-1876-52 Dans un café
Moffett mentions as previously thought to be CR393; see Dony nr. 399; Moffett suggests this picture as 3IE-1877-61+hc. Clayson suggests it was not exhibited at all, because no one makes a reference to such a work (R2,p147), which would explain why this same work was exhibited in 1877. Berson affirms this suggestion. Moffett doesn’t give another suggestion. See also R8,p22.
To compare I give a work that Degas made a year later: 1877, CR417, Woman in a Café, pastel on monotype, 12×16, private NY, (iR2;R26,no431). Another option would be: 1877-80, CR467, At the Café (two women sitting at a table), 65×54, FM Cambridge, (iR2;R26,no458).
Moffett suggests ‘perhaps’ CR391. Now: 1876, CR391, the ballet ‘Robert le diable’, 75×81, VAM London (iR10;R26,no487). Berson mentions that CR295 is also suggested, now: xx. Berson leaves the work unidentified.
Compare also: 1868-69ca, CR186, the orchestra of the Opera, 57×46, Orsay (iR2;R26,no286).
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion, nor does Berson. As a uncertain suggestion I give: 1873, CR329, La blanchisseuse, 22×18, private NY (iR10;iR90;iR22;R26,no367). See more info 1IE-1874-57.
2IE-1876-55 Femme se lavant le soir
Eng.: Woman washing in the evening. Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson omits this work. There were no reviews on this work. Most of the works with women washing themselves are dated later. In the pictures Dony represents I can’t find an additional title with ‘evening’. To compare I give a rather early work with a woman combing her hair, CR436 (=Dony nr. 426)
2IE-1876-56 Petites paysannes se baignant à la mer vers le soir
Moffett (R2,p177) suggests CR377; this is affirmed by Berson; see Dony nr. 396. Now: 1875-76, CR377, Peasant Girls Bathing in the Sea at Dusk, 65×81, private, (iR2;R26,no396). Also exhibited as 3IE-1877-51. Berson notes that this work was neither reviewed in 1876 nor in 1877, which makes it possible that Degas did not show it at all.
Moffett suggests as perhaps CR371; see Dony nr. 393; now: 1875ca, CR371, Madame Jeantaud in the mirror, 74×84, Orsay (iR2;R26,no393;R47,p67;R11,p211). This picture doesn’t necessarily show a milliner, more a lady looking at herself in the mirror. But all paintings of milliners I could find are dated later. So I follow Moffett and label his suggestion as uncertain. Degas exhibited another two works of milliners in 1886, see no.14+15. Berson leaves the work unidentified.
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson omits this work. There are no reviews of this work. Note: the same title as no.46. As one of many options I render: 1875ca, CR369, madame de Rutte, 62×50, private (iR2;R26,no394).
2IE-1876-59 Blanchisseuse (dessin)
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson omits this work. There are no reviews of this work. As a very uncertain option I render: 18xx, CR?, blanchisseuse, dr, xx, xx (iR10). More info see no.41.
2IE-1876-59 Les Danseuses
Berson suggests Degas showed a work outside the catalogue (=hc), but leaves the work unidentified. She refers to the review of Rivière, who might also have referred to no. 44 or 45. (R90II,p36)
The third ‘impressionist’ exposition 1877:
- catalogue numbers 37 – 61
- 1 work was exhibited outside the catalogue (=hors catalogue = hc)
- so in total Degas exhibited 26 works
- 0x indication of place
- 3x indication of time, season or weather
- 0x a study
- 8x loans (appartient à…), M. C. (=Caillebotte; no.37+45+47); M. H.H. (no.38), M. Ch. H. (no.43); M. V. (no. 44); M. H. R… (probably Henri Rouart; no.49+50)
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p204) and Berson (R90II,p72-74+89-92)
3IE-1877-37 Femmes devant un café, le soir ; Appartient à M. C.
Moffett suggests CR419 (R2,p197); Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 430. Now: 1877, CR419, Women on a Cafe Terrace in the Evening, pastel, 41×60, Orsay (iR2;iR59;R90II,p72+89;R27,p42). Note: in the catalogue it is not mentioned it was a pastel on monotype, see also no. 60. This work was part of the Caillebotte bequest, so C. = Caillebotte. Georges Rivière clearly describes this work (1877/04; R26,p163).
3IE-1877-38 École de danse ; Appartient à M. H.H.
Moffett (following Lemoisne) suggests CR398; Now: 1873, CR398, The Dance Class, 48×63, CGA Washington (iR2;R26,no490;R47,p63). But Berson suggests CR430 as a more likely candidate, because Jacques (1877/04/12) reviews ‘under the eye of the master’ (R90II,p72).
Moffett suggests CR513 (R2,p216); now: 1877-80ca, CR513, Ballet at the Paris Opera, pastel, 35×71, AI Chicago, (iR2;R26,no724). Note: the title doesn’t indicate it is a pastel. Compare no.57. Berson suggests CR491, now: 18xx, CR491, L’étoile, pastel over monotype, 58×42, Orsay (R90II,p72+89).
3IE-1877-40 Danseuse, un bouquet à la main
Moffett and Berson suggest CR418; now: 1877, CR418, Dancer With Bouquet, pastel tempera / essance, 66×37, Orsay (iR59;R90II,p72+90;R26,no499). Note: the title doesn’t indicate it was a tempera pastel. Other options also are pastels (R26,no509 / 510 / 511 / 519).
3IE-1877-41 Danseuse à la barre
Moffett suggests CR421 or perhaps 408 (R2,p217); see Dony nr. 498 (a pastel) or 497. I render the last one, now: 1876-77, CR408, Dancers Practicing at the Barre, thinned oil, 75×81, Metropolitan (iR2;iR59;R90II,p72+90;R26,no497). Berson also suggests this work, because of the review of Mantz. Lemoisne suggested CR421 because of a drawing that was published in L’Impressioniste (1877/04/14;R90I,p198). Is it a possibility that one of them was exhibited outside the catalogue (=hc)? I render both options.
3IE-1877-42 Chanteuse de café-concert
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson leaves the work unidentified. But she mentions the suggestion made for CR478bis, that was exhibited as 4IE-1879-70. As a very uncertain option I render a pastel: 1875-76ca, Chanteuse de Café-Concert, pastel, 23×28, private, (iR2). Note: Degas made several works of Mll. Bécat a ‘chanteuse de café’ mostly performing at ‘les Ambassadeurs’. All these works are also an option. Degas exhibited 4 works of café-concerts with the Impressionists: 3IE-1877-42 / 43 / 44 and 6IE-1881-hc3.
3IE-1877-43 Café-concert ; Appartient à M. Ch. H.
Moffett suggests CR404 (R2,p360); Berson affirms; see Dony nr.411. Now: 1877, CR404, The Café Concert, pastel on monotype, 24×43, CGA Washington, (iR2;R26,no411;R27,p37). Note: the catalogue doesn’t indicate this work was a pastel on monotype. Moffett also suggests this one as an option for 6IE-1881-hc3. See also no.42.
3IE-1877-44 Café-concert ; Appartient à M. V…
Moffett suggests CR405; Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 413. Now: 1875-77ca, CR405, Café Concert, At ´Les Ambassadeurs´, pastel on monotype, 37×26, MBA Lyon (iR2;R90II,p73+90;R26,no413;R47,p73). Note: the catalogue didn’t indicate it was a pastel on monotype. See also no.42. Georges Rivière widely and full of praise describes this work (1877/04; R26,p163).
3IE-1877-45 Femme sortant du bain ; Appartient à M. C.
Moffett suggests CR422 (R2,p195); Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 427. Now: 1877ca, CR422, Woman Leaving Her Bath, pastel on monotype, 23×31, Orsay (iR2;R26,no427). Note: the catalogue didn’t indicate it was a pastel on monotype.
3IE-1877-46 Femme prenant son tub le soir
Eng.: Woman taken her bath in the evening. Moffett suggests CR423; see Dony nr. 428. Now: 1876-7, CR423, Woman leaving the tube, pastel on monotype, 17×28, NSM Pasadena (iR59;R26,no428). Note: the catalogue didn’t indicate it was a pastel on monotype. Note 2: both pictures indicate a woman leaving the bath and not one taking her bath; and nothing indicates it was evening. Berson suggests CR422, 18xx, pastel over lithograph, 16×22, Louvre (part of the Caillebotte bequest) or CR890, Femme à sa toilette, pastel over monotype, 46×60, NSAF Pasadena (R90II,p73+90).
3IE-1877-47 Choristes ; Appartient à M. C…
Moffett suggests CR420; Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 416. Now: 1877, CR420, The Chorus, pastel on monotype, 29×30, Orsay (iR2;iR59;R90II,p73+91;R26,no416). Note: the catalogue didn’t indicate it was a pastel on monotype. Was this work also part of the Caillebotte bequest?
3IE-1877-48 Classe de danse
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As an uncertain option I render: 1873-6ca, CR341, the ballet class, 85×75, Orsay (iR2;R26,no479;R11,p206/7). There is not a work exhibited with the same title.
3IE-1877-49 Portrait de monsieur H.R…
Moffett suggests CR373 (R2,p218); Berson affirms; see Dony nr.392. Now: 1875ca, CR373, Henri Rouart in front of His Factory, 65×50, CI Pittsburgh (iR2;R26,no392;R27,p53). H. R… is probably Henri Rouart.
3IE-1877-50 Bains de mer, petite fille peignée par sa bonne ; Appartient à M. H.R…
Moffett suggests CR406; Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 410. Now: 1870-77ca, CR406, Beach Scene, thinned oil essence, 46×81, NG London (iR2;iR59;R90II,p73+91;R26,no410). M. H. R… is Henri Rouart. In his posthumes auction in 1912 it had no. 15.3.
3IE-1877-51 Petites filles du pays se baignant dans la mer à la nuit tombante
Moffett suggests CR377 (R2,p176); Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 396. Now: 1875-76, CR377, Peasant Girls Bathing in the Sea at Dusk, 65×81, private (iR2;R90II,p73+91). Also listed as 2IE-1876-56; it is not sure the work was exhibited at all.
3IE-1877-52 Coulisses de théâtre
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson leaves the work unidentified. She mentions a suggestion for CR715, which was exhibited as 6IE-1881-hc, but the reviews indicate a ballet scene with several dancers rehearsing. Many of the works Degas made of dancers in the wings have a very uncertain date.
I render as a very uncertain option: 1876-85ca, CR617, Dancers in Pink, 59×74, HSM Farmington (iR2;R26,no790). Compare also 1874-56; 1876-47+48; 1881-hc1. Note: Georges Rivière writes about dancers in their blue skirts (1877/04; R26,p163). But I couldn’t find a work made until 1877 that resembles this description, except maybe 1877-9, CR?, Dancers on stage, pastel + gouache, 66×36, TB Lugano (R27,p66).
Georges Rivière writes about a woman portrait that Degas made years ago (1877/04; R26,p163). Moffett suggests for no.53 or 54 CR163, following Lemoisne (R2,p219), now: 1867, CR163, portrait of a young woman, 27×22, Orsay (iR6;R47,p38;R2,p219;R47,p38). Berson suggests CR165, 1867, Mme Gaugjelin, CR165, 59×44, GM Boston (R90II,p73+91). As argument she mentions the Mantz in his review mentions the date of 1867, but this also applies to CR163. She also mentions a lettre of Degas to Mme de Nittis (1877/05/21) describing ‘this old oil portrait of a woman with a chachemire on her knee. ‘ (R90II,p74).
As second very uncertain option I render: 1869, CR198, Emma Dobigny, 31×26, Kh Hamburg (iR2;R47,p44;R26,no254)
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson omits this work; it was not reviewed. I only found a later work from 1892 which I give to compare. Now: 1892, CR1114, The Billiard Room at Menil-Hubert, 51×65, Sg Stuttgart (iR2;R26,no1157). A picture from a room in the castle of the Valpinçon family. This work has similarities with 1872-3, CR312, Interieur, 33×46 in the Horowitz collection in New York, maybe also made in the same castle (R26,no347). If so, maybe Degas also made an earlier version of the one made in 1892.
3IE-1877-56 Cabinet de toilette
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. This work has to indicate a little toilette room. Berson suggests CR547, now: Femme nue accroupie de dos, pstel over monotype, 16×12, Orsay (R90II,p74+92), also part of the Caillebotte bequest.
As a very uncertain option I render a pastel: 1876-7, CR?, Woman at Her Toilette, pastel, xx, NSM Pasadena (iR2)
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson leaves the work unidentified. As an uncertain option I render: 1873, CR?, Ballet Rehearsel, xx, FAM Cambridge, (iR6).
3IE-1877-58 Dessins faits à l’encre grasse et imprimés
3IE-1877-59 Dessins faits à l’encre grasse et imprimés
3IE-1877-60 Dessins faits à l’encre grasse et imprimés
Eng.: drawings made with greasy ink and printed. These are also called monotypes (web.archive.org), see for explanation. The website of the Metropolitan writes: ‘Degas too studied the world of the maisons closes (=prostitution houses), and made about fifty smudged drawings in greasy ink on glass or metal plates which he printed as monotypes’ (see). Provokr (iR91) and the NYtimes render articles on monotypes by Degas exhibited at the MoMa in New York in 2016. Lepic taught Degas making monotypes. It is clear that Degas also used other theme’s for his monotypes. Many of these monotypes Degas later on reworked with chalk, pastel and /or watercolour.
Moffett suggests for no.58-60 CR547, a work I could not indicate. Berson leaves these works unidentified, but cals a work titled ‘Les petites Cardinal, par Ludovic Halévy’. (R90II,p74). So I render 3 very uncertain options also to compare as some works are date later: 1877-58: 1876-7ca, CR?, the tube, monotype, 41×35, BNF Paris (iR10;iR26); 1877-59: 1879-90ca, CR?, woman by a fireplace, monotype, 28×38, NGA Washington (iR10;iR8;R27,p75); 1877-60: 1880-5ca, CR?, Woman Reading, monotype ink, 38×27, NGA Washington (iR91;iR10;iR8).
3IE-1877-61 Répétition de ballet
Moffett suggests CR400; Berson affirms, now: 1874ca, CR400, The Rehearsal of the Ballet Onstage, 54×73, Metropolitan (iR22;R90II,p74+92;R26,no466). Note: This painting is made with tempera and takes place on stage. Both are not indicated in the title. Compare 1IE-1874-54+60 and 4IE-1879-hc. Berson does a second suggestion: CR365, now: 18xx, CR365, Ballet reherassel, pastel + gouache on monotype, 55×68, NAMA Kansas City (R90II,p74+92;).
Moffett suggests CR393; Berson affrims; see Dony nr. 399. Now: 1876, CR393, in a café (the Absinthe drinker), 92×68, Orsay (iR2;R90II,p74+92;R26,no399;R11,p210;R27,p43). The picture was made in the Café de la Nouvelle-Athènes (R47,p69). This work was listed as 2IE-1876-52, but by than probably not shown (R90II,p74;R8,p22).
The fourth ‘impressionist’ exposition 1879:
- catalogue numbers 57-81
- nr. 67 (perhaps) wasn’t exhibited
- probably one work was exhibited outside the catalogue (=hors catalogue=hc)
- in total Degas exhibited between 24 and 26 works; probably 10x oil paintings, 9à11x pastel, 5 fans; additional techniques: 4à5x détrempe (=tempera; soaked wet; no.58/59/65/67/75), 2x essence (=oil or terpentine; no. 63 + 64)
- 1x indication of place
- 0x indication of time, season or weather
- 2x a study
- 10x loans (appartient à…)
- 11x portraits; 6à7x dancers; 5x éventail / fan (nrs.77-81);
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p267/8) and Berson (R90II,p109-112+128-131)
4IE-1879-57 Portrait de M. Diego Martelli
Moffett suggests CR519 (R2,p257); Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 566. Now: 1879, Diego Martelli, 100×110 , NGS Edinburgh (iR2;R90II,p109+128). Berson mentions that it was not reviewed on and maybe not exhibited, still it was on a list of works that Degas wanted to submit. She also mentions another less finished work of Diego Martelli, CR520, now: MNBA Buenos Aires (R90II,p109).
4IE-1879-58 Portrait de M. Duranty (détrempe)
Moffett suggests CR517 (R2,p36); Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 558. Now: 1879, CR517, Edmond Duranty, pastel and tempera, 100×100, Glasgow AGM (iR10;iR5;R90II,p109+128; R2,p36;R47,p55). Détrempe means soaking wet, so the pastel (or oil paint) has been made wet; sometimes also called tempera. Tempera means that dry powder colour pigments are mixed with egg and / or water (iR3;iR5).
4IE-1879-59 Portrait après un bal costumé (détrempe)
Moffett suggests CR534; Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 562. Now: 1879,CR534, Portrait after a Costume Ball (Mme Dietz-Monnin), pastel + tempera, 86×75, AI Chicago (iR59;iR2;R90II,p109+128). For détrempe see no.58.
4IE-1879-60 Portrait d’amis, sur la scène (pastel)
Moffett suggests CR526; Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 567. Now: 1879, CR526, Wings of Desire (Ludovic Halevy and Albert Cave), pastel, 79×55, Orsay (iR2;iR59;R90II,p109+128).
4IE-1879-61 Portraits, à la bourse ; appartient à M. E.M…
Moffett suggests CR499 (R2,p278); Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 454. Now: 1878-79, CR499, At the Stock Exchange, 100×81, Orsay (iR59;iR2;R2,p278;;R90II,p110+128). Also listed for 5IR-1880-35, but it is unclear if it was exhibited at all.
4IE-1879-62 Miss Lola, au cirque Fernando
Moffett suggests CR522 (R2,p279); Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 560. Now: 1879, CR522, Miss La La at Cirque Fernando, 117×78, NG London (iR2;iR59;R2,p279;R90II,p110+128;R47,p82;R27,p48).
4IE-1879-63 Chevaux de course (essence)
Moffett suggests CR262 or 649 (R2,p242); see Dony nr. 194 or 692. Option 1, 1869-72, CR262, Le défilé (Racehorses in front of the Stands), thinned oil, 46×61, Orsay (iR10;iR2). Option 2, 1881ca, CR649, Jockeys before the Race, thinned oil, 108×74, BIFA Birmingham (iR2;R90II,p110+129;R26,no692). As option 2 probably is a later work, option 1 should by more likely, but Berson only suggests CR649, referring to the review of Roland. Degas showed 3 works of race horses in 1874. This is the only work he exhibited later on with the Impressionists. Essence means the oil is thinned with terpetine / gasoline.
4IE-1879-64 Blanchisseuses portant du linge en ville (esquisse à l’essence) ; appartient à M. Coquelin Cadet.
Moffett suggests CR410 (R2,p280); Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 437. Now: 1876-78ca, CR410, laundress carrying linen, 46×61, private (iR2;R280). For ‘essence’ see no. 63. The title has many similarities with 2IE-1876-50, probably this same work was intended to be submitted in 1876 (R90II,p110). For more info see 1IE-1874-57.
4IE-1879-65 École de danse (détrempe) ; appartient à M. E.M…
Moffett suggests CR399 (R2,p258); see Dony nr. 489. Now: 1876, CR399, Dance School, 43×57, SM Vermont (iR10;R2,p258). For détrempe see no.58. Berson suggests CR498, now 18xx, CR498, La Répétition sur la scène, pastel over ink; 53×72; Metropolitan (;R90II,p110+129). She does so referring to the review of Silvestre. She suggests CR399 was exhibited hc.
4IE-1879-66 École de danse ; appartient à M. H.R…
Moffett suggests CR537; Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 727. Now: 1879ca, CR537, Rehearsal, 47×61, Frick coll NY (iR2;R90II,p110+129). H.R… is Henri Rouart (R2,p264). It was part of his legacy and sold in 1912 under no.15.1.
4IE-1879-67 Essai de décoration (détrempe)
Eng.: decorative study (tempera). Moffett suggests CR532, following Lemoisne; see Dony nr. 565. Moffett notes that this picture may not have been exhibited and suggests that it was exhibited in 1881 outside the catalogue, see 6IE-1881-19+hc2. Berson affirms this suggestion, also mentioning the difference in medium. I go along with them and assume it was not exhibited. For détrempe see no.58.
4IE-1879-68 Portrait dans une baignoire à l’Opera (pastel)
Eng.: Portrait in a bath-tube at the Opera (pastel). Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson leaves the work unidentified, but mentions two suggestions: CR434 and 586.
|As a very uncertain option a give: 1877-9ca, CR456, Femme nu se coiffant, pastel on monotype, 22×16, A2010/11/02 (iR11;R26,no451). The setting suggests a dressing room with an actress and her admirer, maybe in the Opera.
4IE-1879-69 Portrait d’un peintre dans son atelier ; appartient à M. H.M.L….
Moffett suggests as options CR240 or 326 or 337; see Dony nr. ? or 362 (=CR362; typo?) or ? Compare CR175 = Dony nr. 240; or is CR240 a typo for CR175?. Option: 1867-68ca, CR175, Portrait of James Tissot 151×112, Metropolitan, (iR6;R26,no240;R27,p18). Option, 1873, CR362, Portrait of Henri Michel-Levy (or artist in his studio), 41×27, MFCG Lisbon (iR2;R90II,p111+129;R26,no362). I think the last one makes most sense because the work belonged to H.M.L… which is Henri Michel-Lévy.
4IE-1879-70 Chanteuse de café (pastel) ; appartient à M. C. G…
(C.G.=Gustave Caillebotte?). Moffett suggests CR478bis; Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 448. Now: 1878, CR478bis, Chanteuse de café (au gant), the singer with the glove, pastel, 53×41, FAM Cambridge (iR6;iR59;R90II,p111+129). Dony describes the technique as pastel and tempera, which is not indicated in the catalogue.
So I render: 1878-9, CR477, café singer, 54×42, pastel, AI Chicago (iR2;R26,no449), which is a ‘normal’ pastel.
4IE-1879-71 Loge de danseuse (pastel) ; appartient à Mme A de C…
Moffett suggests CR529; Berson affrims; see Dony nr. 728. Now: 1879, CR529, Dancer in Her Dressing Room, pastel, 60×43, coll Oskar Reinhart (iR2;R90II,p111+130).
Other options might be: 1878ca, CR497, Dancer’s Dressing Room, pastel, 58×44, private (iR2;R26,no518) and: 1879ca, CR561, Dancer in Her Dressing Room, pastel, 88×38, Cincinnati AM (iR8;R26,no736).
4IE-1879-72 Danseuse posant chez un photographe ; appartient à M. Brame
Moffett suggests CR447; Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 505. Now: 1877-78ca, CR447, Dancer Posing for a Photographer (‘Dancer in Front of the Window’), 65×50, Pushkin (iR2;R90II,p111+130).
4IE-1879-73 Grand air, après un ballet (pastel)
Moffett suggests CR521; Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 745. Now: 1879, CR521, aria after the ballet, essence + pastel (+ gouache?), 60×75, MA Dallas (iR6;iR10;R90II,p111+130). Note: The gouache isn’t mentioned in the catalogue.
4IE-1879-74 Portrait de danseuse, à la leçon (pastel)
Moffett suggests CR450; Berson affirms; see Dony nr. 503. Now: 1877-78, CR450, The Dance Lesson, pastel, 67×59, Metropolitan (iR2;iR59;R90II,p111+130).
4IE-1879-75 Portraits de M. et Mme H. de C. (détrempe à pastel)
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. The catalogue of Dony doesn’t provide an option to. Berson leaves it not identified. She mentions in Degas his list were a ‘Portraits de Mme H. de Clermont + Mr. S de Cl-‘ (R90II,p111). Maybe now: 1876-7ca, CR?, Ludovic Halevy Speaking with Madame Cardinal, pastel on monotype, 27×18, private (iR2). Note: if my suggestion is correct the catalogue title must have been: Portraits de M. H. et Mme de C. The monotype technique isn’t mention in the title either. For détrempe see no.58.
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson leaves it unidentified. She mentions a review in Le Soir mentioning a portrait of M. Coquelin Cadet. Degas his own list mentions a ‘portrait on a lampshade’ (R90II,p111).
As a very uncertain suggestion I give: 1867, CR166, Study for the Portrait of Josephine Gaujean, 35×27, Kh Hamburg, (iR2;iR10;R26,no225).
4IE-1879-77 Éventail ; appartient à M. Brame
Moffett suggests CR457 (R2,p248+281); affirmed by Berson; see Dony nr. 542. : 1879ca, CR457, Fan, the ballet, wc, 16×54, Metropolitan (iR59:R90II,p111+130).
4IE-1879-78 Éventail ; appartient à Mme L.H.
4IE-1879-79 Éventail ; appartient à Mme H. R…
Moffett suggests for no.78, 79, 80 and 81 ‘perhaps’ CR566 and 567; see Dony no. 544 and 543. Berson suggests for no.78: 18xx, Danseuses sur scène, fan wc on silk, 16×57, A1986/12/10 (R90II,p112+130). Berson suggests for no.79, CR613: 18xx, CR613, Le ballet, fan, gouache on silk, 19×60, xx (R90II,p111+130). Berson suggests for no. 80 or 81 CR566, now: 1879ca, CR566, dancers, fan wc on silk, 19×58, Metropolitan (iR10;R90II,p112+131;R26,no544)
Other options: Dony no. 281, 289, 541, 544-555. See also R47,p56+81.
4IE-1879-81+hc1 Répétition de ballet sur la scène / Leçon de danse
Pickvance suggests Degas showed CR498 outside the catalogue (=hc=hors catalogue). This because of a critic of Silvestre (1879/04/24) (R2,p264/5). In the catalogue of Moffett this suggestion is not repeated (R2,p268). Now: 1873-74, CR498, The Rehearsal on Stage, pastel, 53×72, Metropolitan (iR2;R26,no469). But Berson suggests this work for no.50. For this hc-work she suggests CR399, referring to the second review of Silvestre (1879/05/01) mentioning it ‘une nouvelle Leçon de danse‘, which suggests it was hanged after his first review of April 24th (R90II,p112) . Compare: 1IE-1874-54+60 and 3IE-1877-61.
4IE-1879-81+hc2 Danseuses derrière la toile
Berson suggests a second work that was exhibited outside the catalogue (=hc). Now: 18xx, CR500, the Ballet, pastel, 32×25, CGA Washington (R90II,p112+131). Referring to the review of X and De Tarade.
The fifth ‘impressionist’ exposition 1880:
- catalogue numbers 33-44.
- At least two works were not exhibited (no.33 + 34 and?; R2,p309), see the remark of the review by Gustave Goetschy (1880/04/06) ‘You will see neither his Dencer nor his Young Spartan Girls, nor yet other works that he has promised us.’ (R2,p309;R90I,p282)
- 2 or 3 works exhibited outside the catalogue (=hors catalogue = hc)
- Number 44 contained of at least 2 engravings.
- No. 42+43 both contained of at least 2 drawings.
- So in total Degas exhibited at least 14 works, including 4 pastels, at least 4 drawings and at least 2 engravings.
- 1x indication of place
- 0x indication of time, season or weather
- 2x a study
- 3x loans (appartient à…), 2 of M. E. M. (no.35+40) and 1 of M. L. (no.41)
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p311) and Berson (R90II,p147/8+163/4)
5IE-1880-33 Petites filles Spartiates provoquant des garçons (1860)
(not exhibited, R2,p311+301). See Dony no. 86. Now: 1860ca, CR70, Spartans exercising , 110×155, NG London (iR2;R90II,p147+163;R26,no86).
5IE-1880-34 Petite danseuse de quatorze ans (statuette en cire)
(not exhibited, R2,p311+336;R26,p160). See 6IE-1881-12.
5IE-1880-35 Portraits à la bourse; appartient à M. E.M.
Moffett suggests CR499 in Musée d’Orsay (R2,p278). Now: 1878-79, CR499, At the Stock Exchange, 100×81, Orsay (iR2;R26,no454). Maybe also exhibited as 4IE-1879-61. But, by absence of critical review, Berson suggests it maybe was not exhibited, nor in 1880, nor in 1879.
Moffett, following Lemoisne suggests CR517 in Glasgow AGM (R2,p36). Now: 1879, CR517, Edmond Duranty, pastel tempera, 100×100, Glasgow AGM (iR6;R26,no558). Dony indicates this work was made of pastel and tempera, which is not indicated in the title (R26,no558). There is also a smaller pastel version in the NGA Washington. Degas also showed this work in 1879 (no.58). Silvestre (1880/05/01) reviews ‘Since my last article (1880/04/25), the exposition of M. Degas has been extended with a very important piece, the portrait of the poor Duranty.’ (R90I,p308) Because of this review Berson suggests this work as exhibited outside the catalogue (=hc) and leaves this number unidentified.
So I assume he now showed another work. As a very uncertain option I render: 1877ca, CR441, Mll. Malo, 81×65 NGA Washington (iR2;iR10; R26,no419).
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson omits this work. There were no reviews. As a very uncertain suggestion I give: 1877, CR442, Portrait of a Woman, 65×54 or 86×77, Detroit IA (iR2;R26,no420). The background shows similarities with that of no.36.
5IE-1880-38 étude de loge au théâtre; pastel
Moffett suggests CR584, Berson affirms. Now: 1880, CR584, the loge, pastel, 66×53, private (iR59;R26,no762).
5IE-1880-39 Toilette; pastel
Moffett suggests with a perhaps CR554 in a private collection in New York (R2,p322). Now: 1879ca, CR554, After the Bath, pastel on monotype, 21×16, private, (iR2;R26,no864). Note: the catalogue doesn’t indicate the pastel was drawn over a monotype. Based on the reviews Berson suggests CR749, now: 18xx, CR749, Le Coucher (La Toilette; pastel), 65×50, private (iR10;iR114;R90II,p148+163)
5IE-1880-40 Examen de danse; pastel; appartient à M. E.M.
Moffett suggests CR576 in Denver MA (R2,p323). Berson confirms. Now: 1880ca, CR576, The Dancing Examination, pastel, 62×47, Denver AM (iR2;iR59;R90II,p148+163;R26,no761). Compare: 2IE-1876-37.
5IE-1880-41 Danseuses; appartient à M. L…
Moffett suggests CR559 in Shelburne museum Vermont (R2,p303). Berson confirms. Now: 1879, CR559, Two Ballet Dancers, pastel, 45×65, Shelburne M (iR2;iR59;R90II,p148+163;R26,no738). Note: the catalogue didn’t indicate this work was a pastel.
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson also leaves the works unidentified. Silverstre (1880/04/24) reviews ‘un admirable portrait of a lady in a rough execution’ (R90I,p306). Charles Ephrussi (1880/05/01) reviews ‘busts of women drawn on yellowish paper and a study of a head (no.43)’ (R90I,p278). Huysmans (1883) reviews ‘the woman’s torso that leans forward and two drawings on pink paper, where a ballerina is seen from the back and another that reattaches her shoe, are extracted with uncommon flexibility and vigour.’ (R90I,p290). Arthur Baignères (1880/04/10) mentions ‘a head’ being a pastel (R90I,p266), but it is unclear to which number he refers. Dalligny (1880/04/16) reviews ‘M. Degas is a master pastelist; one of his portraits is of a brilliant and tight execution, and admirably posed. But why is he so fond of the incredible contortions of dancers that you’re sometimes tempted to mistake them for stuffed frogs.’ (R90I,p274), but this could well refer to one of the pastel dancers he exhibited, such as no.40+41.
Both titles indicate a plural form, so I assume Degas showed at least 2×2=4 drawings. I render very uncertain options: 1880-42-1: 1879-80ca, Edmond Duranty, drawing, 31×47, Metropolitan (iR10;R27,p22); compare 1879-58. 1880-42-2: 18xx, Portrait of Diego Martelli, dr, xx, xx (iR10); compare 1879-57. 1880-43-1: 1879, 4 studies of the 14 year old little dancer, dr, 48×31, Louvre CdD (iR10;R3,p122;R27,p59). 1880-43-2: 1880ca, CR586bis, three studies of a dancer, dr, 81×51, private (iR10;R26,no766;R27,p57). Compare 1880-34 and 1881-12. Note: My last two suggestions represent several drawings within 1 work, so this makes my assumption uncertain that Degas showed at least 2×2 works.
5IE-1880-44 Eaux-fortes. Essais et états de planches
Eng.: etchings; studies and states of planks. Moffett suggests Delteil no. 30, now alos in the Louvre, Musée des Antiquités. Berson affirms, now: 1880ca, Mary Cassatt at the Louvre, etch ps, 27×24, FAM San Francisco + Louvre + TMA Ohio (iR59;R90II,p148+164;R27,p25). The plural form indicates that Degas showed several studies and states. I will render 5 distinguished works.
Moffett suggests two options: 1.: CR828, A Ballet from an Opera Box in the Philadelphia MA, but this work is made around 1885 (R2,no816) Or 2.: CR476, Dancer with bouquet in the Rhode Island School of Design; now: 1878, CR476, Dancer with a Bouquet of Flowers, pastel, 40×50, Providence RISD (or Orsay), (iR2;R26,no509;R47,p57). This one I will render. Berson doesn’t follow this suggestion of Moffett and it stays unclear why Moffett makes these suggestions.
5IE-1880-44+hc2 La leçon de danse
Moffett suggests CR625 of the Mellon collection in Upperville (R2,p324). Berson affirms. Now: 1879-85ca, CR625, The Dance Lesson, 38×88, coll PM Virginia (iR2;R90II,p148+164;R26,no786).
5IE-1880-44+hc3 Portrait de M. Duranty
Suggested by Berson, see no.36 (R90II,p148+164).
The sixth ‘impressionist’ exposition 1881:
- catalogue numbers 12-19
- 4 works were exhibited outside the catalogue (=hors catalogue = hc)
- in total Degas exhibited 12 works: 1 sculpture; 6 oil paintings; 3 pastels; 1 drawing; 1 monotype
- 0x indication of place
- 0x indication of time, season or weather
- 0x a study; though no. 17+18 look like studies
- 0x loans (appartient à…)
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p354) and Berson (R90II,p180+190)
6IE-1881-12 Petite danseuse de quatorze ans (statuette en cire)
Moffett suggests a sculpture in the Mellon collection in Upperville, Virginia (R2,p336+361), now part of the NGA Washington collection (see): 1881ca, the little fourteen year old dances, wax + applied materials, 99×35, NGA Washington (iR2;iR59;R2,p336+361;R90II,p180+190;R26,p160). Note: Degas intended to exhibit this work in 1880, but did not succeed. Probably the statue arrived after the 8th and before the 15th of April (the exposition started the 2nd) (R90II,p180). There are several musea who have a bronze version. See also R11,p220. Huysmans writes that Degas did tumble down the traditions of sculpture with his work (R26,p164).
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion for these 4 works. Berson leaves the work unidentified. Dalligny, Gonzague-Privat and Silvestre all just mention the portraits but don’t describe them (R90I,p335-366). I render 4 very uncertain options of portraits of men: No.13: 1875-7, CR378, Jérôme Ottoz, 46×37, private (iR10;R26,no405). No.14: 1875-80, CR389, portrait of a man, 55×45, MFA Boston (iR2;R26,no445). No. 15: 1877ca, CR439, Alfred Niaudet, 46×32, VMFA Richmond (iR10;R26,no433). No. 16: 1877-85ca, CR660, Portrait of a Man, 79×59, CAI Williamstown (iR2;R26,no606).
6IE-1881-17 Physionomie de criminel
6IE-1881-18 Physionomie de criminel
Moffett suggests CR638 + 639 (R2,p342). Berson affirms. Now: 1881ca, CR638, Physiognomie de criminal, pastel, 64×76, private, (iR10;R26,no582) and: 18xx, CR639, Physionomie de criminal, pastel, 48×63, xx (R90II,p180+190).
probably: 1881, Criminal Physiognomies, pastel, 64×76, private, (iR2;iR59).
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson omits this work. There were no reviews. As an uncertain option I render: 1880-85ca, CR846, Woman Ironing, 81×75, WAG Liverpool (iR2;iR10;R26,no638;R47,p86).
6IE-1881-19+hc1 Vue de coulisses
Moffett suggests CR1024 in the NGA in Washington or CR500 in the Corcoran GA in Washington (R2,p360). The first one is a work made around 1890, so I don’t think this really is an option (R26,no859). The second one now is: 1878-80, CR500, Before the ballet, 32×25, CGA Washington (iR10;R26,no540). Berson suggests CR715, now: 1880-85ca, CR715, In the Wings, pastel, 66×37, private (iR2;R90II,p190+180). She refers to some reviews: Goetschy (1881) who reviews ‘a young (female) artist waiting in the wings’. Enjoiras (1881) who reviews ‘those two silhouettes of a man and a woman standing’. Compare also 1IE-1874-56; 2IE-1876-47+48; 3IE-1877-52.
6IE-1881-19+hc2 Projet de portraits en frise
Moffett suggests CR532 in a private collection (R2,p341). Berson affirms. Now: 1880ca, CR532, a frieze, three women, pastel and tempera, 50×65, private (iR2;R90II,p180+190;R26,no565). Compare 4IE-1879-67 that (maybe) wasn’t exhibited then. The person in the middle is Mary Cassatt (R26,no565).
6IE-1881-19+hc3 Chanteuses en scène
Moffett suggests CR405 in Md Lyon or CR404 in Corcoran GA Washington, or CR372. The first one is now: 1875-77ca, CR405, Café Concert – At ´Les Ambassadeurs´, pastel, 37×26, MBA Lyon, (iR2;R26,no413). Moffett also suggested this one for 3IE-1877-44. The second one is: 1877, CR404, The Café Concert, pastel, 24×43, CGA Washington, (iR2;R26,no411). Moffett also suggests this one for 3IE-1877-43 (R2,p360). The last one is now: 1875ca, CR372, Mademoiselle Becat aux ambassadeurs, litho pastel, 12×21, xx (iR10;R26,no385). I render the last one. Berson leaves the work unidentified, but mentions the suggestions of CR372 and also CR458. Referring to the reviews of de Mont. and Huysmans she suggests that several drawings and studies of café-concet singers were exhibited. See info 3IE-1877-42.
6IE-1881-19+hc4 Femme nue
Moffett suggests a monotype in the MFA Boston or in the Stanford University Art Museum (R2,p363). Now: 1879ca, Room in a brother, monotype ink, 21×16, Stanford UMA Palo Alto (iR10;R2,p363). Berson leaves the work unidentified. Referring to Janis (1968) she mentions as options the numbers 22, 42 (following Moffett) and also no.164. Compare other monotype drawings: 3IE-1877-58+59+60.
The eight ‘impressionist’ exposition 1886:
- catalogue numbers 14-28.
- in total Degas exhibited 15 works, all pastels except no. 18, which maybe also was a pastel; 10x suite de nus (no.19-28).
- 0x indication of place
- 0x indication of time, season or weather
- 1x a study
- 7x loans (appartient à…),
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p443) and Berson (R90II,p240/1+258/9).
8IE-1886-14 Femme essayant un chapeau chez sa modiste (pastel) ; appartient à Mme. A.
Moffett suggests CR682 in the Metropolitan (R2,p435). Berson affirms. Now: 1882, CR682, At the Milliner’s, pastel, 76×86, Metropolitan (iR10;Mx;iR59;iR2;R90II,p240+258;R26,no586). Degas one time earlier exhibited a work of milliners with the Impressionists see 2IE-1876-57.
8IE-1886-15 Petite modistes (pastel) ; appartient à M. A.R.
Moffett suggests CR681 in the NAMA in Kansas City (R2,p437). Now: 1882, CR681, The Little Milliners, pastel, 48×69 , NAMA Kansas city (iR2;iR59;R90II,p240+258;R26,no587). See no.14.
8IE-1886-16 Portrait (pastel)
Moffett suggests CR831 in a private collection in Paris. Berson affirms. Now: 1885ca, CR831, portrait of Zacherie Zacharian, pastel, 40×40, private (iR2;iR10;R90II,p240+258;R26,no642).
8IE-1886-17 Ébauche de portraits (pastel)
Eng.: Draft / sketch of portraits (pastel). Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson leaves the work unidentified, but she mentions the suggestion for CR824, now: 1885, CR824, Six Friends of the Artist at Dieppe, pastel, 115×71, Providence SDMA (iR2;iR8;R90II,p240;R26,no641;R27,p73). Note: The work renders 6 portraits of friends; this can explain the plural form in the title.
8IE-1886-18 Têtes de femme
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Berson leaves the work unidentified, but she mentions the suggestion for CR868, Mlle Salle, now: 1886, CR868, mademoiselle Salle, pastel, 50×50, xx (iR10;iR13;R90II,p240;R26,no651). Note 1: the title doesn’t indicate this work was a pastel. Note 2: The work suggested renders Mlle Salle 3 times; this corresponds the plural form in the title.
Suite de nuds de femmes se baignant, se lavant, se séchant, s’essuyant, se peignant ou se faisant peigner (pastels) :
Eng: A serie of nude women who are bathing, washing, drying, wiping of, combing themselves or who are combed (pastels):. ‘Nuds’ is writing error for ‘nus’ (R2,p452) .
Note: there are 6 activities mentioned in the titles. Moffett mentions that probably there weren’t 10 works shown. Huysmans describes only 4 works, another review mentions 6 poses what corresponds the activities mentioned in the titles. Moffett does several suggestions: CR717, CR728 (Orsay), CR738 (Tate), CR765 (Glasgow AGM); CR815 (NSM Pasadena); CR816 (Metropolitan); CR847 (Metropolitan); CR848 or 849; CR872 (Orsay); CR875 (Metropolitan); CR876 Hillstead M Farmington; CR877 (Pearlman Foundation New York). Furthermore a work in the Hermitage and in NGA Washington. See also R2,p430+453+454.
Berson is more specific. She leaves the numbers 20+26+27+28 unidentified.
8IE-1886-19 1 ; appartient à M.E.B
As no.19 (or 20) Berson identifies a work owned by Emile Boussod. Now: 1886, CR872, the tub, 60×83, pastel, Orsay (iR6;R90II,p240+258;R26,no920;R47,p103;R11,p314/5). Also suggested by Moffett.
8IE-1886-20 2; appartient à M.E.B.
Concerning no.20 Berson mentions that CR847 is suggested, now: 1885ca, CR847, Woman Having Her Hair Combed, pastel, 74×60, Metropolitan (iR2;R26,no918). The suggestion is made because it is the only pastel of this date showing a woan having her hair combed, a subject cited in the group title of the suite, and that it was probably owned by Emile Boussod.’ But Berson suggests: ‘The lack of any mention of it in the reviews suggests it was not shown.’ (R90II,p240). Another option for no.20 is: 1885-86, CR875, After the bath, pastel, 50×54, Metropolitan (Mx;R26,no926;R2,p443), probably is was part of the Emile Boussod collection, it is a work that is also mentioned by Moffett.
8IE-1886-21 3; appartient à M.R.B.
As n0.21 Berson identifies CR816, now: 18xx, CR816, Woman bathing in a shallow tub, pastel, 81×56, Metropolitan (R90II,p240/1+259).
8IE-1886-22 4; appartient à M.M.
As n0.22 Berson identifies 1885, CRsup113, Après la bain, femme s’essuyant, (Girl Drying Herself), pastel, 80×51, NGA Washington (iR2;iR59;R90II,p241+259;R2,p452), a work also suggested by Moffett. This one corresponds the description of Maurice Hermel (1886/05/27): ‘In a corner of some broadly sketched greenery is a large bather in the open air who sledes over her upraised elbows the white linen that will cover her ample nudity.’ But he revers also to ‘putting on her slip’, which is not clear in the painting. (iR2,p452). (Geffroy (1886/05/26) also refers to ‘reaching out her arms to put het slip back on’.) Fénénon (1886/06/13-20) reviews ‘But this is the outdoors: A woman near a river in the greenery, wiggles her shirt around, ballooning on high bowing arms.’ (R90I,p441). Note: there are not many works of women bathing outdoors made by Degas before April 1886.
8IE-1886-23 5; appartient à M.H.
As no.23 Berson identifies 18xx, CRsupp82, Femme s’essuyant après le bain, pastel, 50×50, Hermitage (R90II,p241+259), probably the ‘Hermitage-work’ that Moffett referred to. She remarks it was previously thought to be CR738, now: 1883ca, CR738, Woman in a Tub (Femme au bain), pastel, 69×69, Tate (iR2;R26,no885).
As no.24 Berson identifies 1886ca, CR877, The Morning Bath, 67×52, Pearl Foundation (iR2;R90II,p241+259;R2,p454), also suggested by Moffett.
As no. 25 Berson identifies CR765, now: 1884ca, CR765, woman in bath tube, pastel, 45×65, AGM Glasgow (iR59;R26,no908).
For no.26 Berson mentions the suggestion of CR1075, now: 1890-1900ca, Deux femmes aux bain, pastel, 56×80, xx (R90II,p241;R26,no1000). This fits a review of Fénénon (1886/06/13-20) ‘Three village women, beastly and with thick limbs, enter into a river, with curved backs, bulging out the enormity of the thighs, where the sun crashes, weeping the air of of their simpering, half-stretched arms, advancing towards the open water, at laborious pace; on their limbs a wolfhound is panting.’ (R90I,p441). The later date makes it not suited, but maybe Degas did rework it later. Sure is that in the Fénénon discription there are 3 women and in CR1075 two. I have no picture of this work. It would be very interesting to research this picture with X-ray to see if and how Degas reworked his works. This would shed a light on the dating of his works and maybe it would broaden the possibilities for the works he exhibited for this suite in 1886.
Berson omits the numbers 27+28.
I will now stand still at the contemporary reviews and will render several options for the numbers 26 – 28:
Michel (1886/05/18) refers to a woman ‘washing herself with a sponge‘, which probably refers to: 1883ca, CR728, Woman in a Bath Sponging Her Leg, pastel on monotype, 20×41, Orsay (iR2;R2,p43;R26,no889). Also suggested by Moffett.
Geffroy (1886/05/26) writes about 9 different situations / poses / actions. The 1st ‘lowering herself into … her bathtub‘ corresponds (among others) with: 1886ca, CR876, the tube, Woman in the Bath, pastel, 70×70, HSM Farmington (iR6;R26,no921;R2,p430;R47,p99), also suggested by Moffett. The 6th ‘on her knees drying herself with a towel‘ corresponds with: 1883ca, CR738, Woman in a Tub (Femme au bain), pastel, 69×69, Tate (iR2;R26,no885). Berson rejects this suggestion and suggests for no.23 CRsup82 wich depicts a same pose. The 7th he describes: ‘standing, head lowered, and her rump sticking out‘ (R2,p453). This corresponds with: 1885, CR837, Leaving the Bath, pastel on monotype, 44×24, private (iR2;R26,no919) or with: 1886-90, CR891, Woman Leaving Her Bath, pastel, 28×38, private (iR2;R26,no931); these are not mentioned by Moffett. The 8th ‘bending over to one side‘ corresponds with CR765, suggested by Berson for no. 25. The 9th he describes ‘He has seen her from floor level, next to marble stands piled with scissors, brushes, combs, switches of false hair.‘ This corresponds with CR872, suggested by Berson as no.19(or20). This corresponds also with his 3rd description ‘sponging the nape of her neck‘.
Paul Adam (1886/04) describes ‘her hands flat on her lower back, she contemplates herself no doubt, in some invisible mirror‘. This corresponds with CR877, suggested by Berson for no.24. He also describes ‘their thighs, backs, and contoured hips distended by crouching‘, which corresponds with: 1884-86ca, CR788, Après le bain; femme s’essuyant (After the bath; Woman Drying Herself), pastel, 43×34, MUMA Le Havre (iR2;R26,no906); this one is not suggested by Moffett.
The description ‘se peignant‘ (combing her hair) in the title corresponds with: 1885-88ca, CR849, Female Nude, from the Rear, Fixing Her Hair, pastel, 64×53 or 71×59, private (iR2;R2,p443;R26,no914), also mentioned by Moffett. I assume CR848 suggested by Moffett has the same theme; Dony mentions the work (no.915), but doesn’t render a picture. As another alternative I mention: 1884-5ca, CR898, Femme se peignant (Woman combing her hair), pastel, 50×50, Hermitage (iR6;R47,p96); a work that is not suggested by Moffett. CR849 also corresponds with the description of Desclozeaux (1886/05/27) ‘the red marks caused by toweling‘ (R2,p453).
The description ‘se faisant peigner’ (Eng.: being combed) corresponds with CR847, a work sugggested for no.20.
I could not find pictures of CR717 and CR848 suggested by Moffett and of CR1075 mentioned by Berson.
Following the various descriptions, it’s not hard to find 10 works that correspond with it. So I don’t follow the suggestion of Moffett that less than 10 works were shown.
Degas at the Salon:
S1865-2406 Scène de guerre au moyen âge ; pastel
Degas his debut at the Salon. Now: 1865, CR124, War Scene from the Middle Ages (The Suffering City of Orléans), thinned oil,81×147, Orasy (iR2;R47,p35;R26,no107;R27,p93). Note: Dony talks about a pastel (R26,p12), which is also indicated by the Salon database (iR3). The French Wikipedia site describes it as thinned oil on paper laid on canvas (iR4).
S1866-520 Scène de steeple-chase
Now: 1866, CR140, Scene from the Steeplechase (The Fallen Jockey, 180×152, NGA Washington (iR35;R47,p34;R26,no167;R27,p93). Receives good critics (R47,p33).
S1867- 444 Portrait de famille
Now: 1858-67, CR79, family portrait (the Bellelli family), 200×253, Orsay, (iR6;R47,p20,7;R26,no139). it did not receive much attention (R11,p107).
S1867- 445 Portrait de famille
Never identified with certainty. Options are: 1866-70, CR265, Portrait of Mme Lisle and Mme Loubens, 85×97 , AI Chicago (iR10;iR2;R26,no265;R47,p7). And: 1865-6, two sisters, Giovanna and Giulia Bellelli, 92×73, CMA Los Angeles (iR2;R47,p37,7;R26,no215). Another option is: 1865ca, Two sisters; the nieces of the painter, 57×70, WA Hartford (R27,p15).
S1868-686 Portrait de Mlle E. F… ; à propos du ballet de la Source
Now: 1866-68, CR146, Eugénie Fiocre à propos du ballet ‘La Source’, 130×145, NY Brooklyn M (iR2;R47,p8;R26,no282;R27,p93;R27,p29). Note the rendering of details (R47,p40).
S1869-661 Portrait de Mme G…
Now: 1867, CR165, Joséphine Gaujean, 59×44, ISGM Boston, (iR2;R47,p8;R26,no224;R27,p93). It was hung on a very bad spot (R47,p34).
The next work was rejected: 1869, CR207, Madame Camus at the Piano, 139×64 (or: 142×95), Bührle, (iR2;R47,p7,34;R26,no246;R27,p19).
S1870-758 Portrait de Mme C…
Now 1870, CR271, Madame Camus with a Fan, 73×92, NGA Washington, (iR2;R47,p8+47;R26,no258;R27,p93).
S1870-3320 Portrait de Mme G…. ; pastel
Now probably: 1869, CR214, Madame Théodore Gobillard (Yves Morisot), pastel, 48×30, Metropolitan (iR8;iR2;R26,no250). Last time he submitted (R47,p47;iR1;R27,p93).
At the Exposition Universelle in Paris there are 2 paintings and 5 pastels exhibited (R47,p121).