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receiving recognition and income


Many of the Impressionists were dependant on art-collectors to buy their work and in this way receiving recognition and income. With some collectors the Impressionists had befriended relationships. The most important art-collectors for the impressionists you’ll find here. And also all those that lent works for the ‘impressionist’ expositions. They will be rendered in an alphabetical order.

Alexis, Paul (1847-1901):
Art-critic. At the 8th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1886 he did loan a painting of Signac (no.198). Owned at least 2 studies of Seurat, including DR150. (R207,p48)

Alexandre, Arsène:
Art-critic. Owned at least 1 work of Seurat (DR172) (R207,p47).
Catalogue: 1903/15/18+19, sale collection Arsène Alexandre (link to iR40//bpt6k1250746f).

Baudry, Etienne (1830-1906/08):
He was a cousin of Théodore Duret↓. At the 4th ‘impressionist’ exposition he lent 1 work of Monet (no.138); he had bought this work at the Hoschedé sale 1874/01/13↓. 1873/04/20 he bought CCP258 from Pissarro, which later was part of the 1892/04/13 sale as no.47 at Hôtel Drouot. (R90II,p285;R22,CR184;R116,CCP258)


Bellio, Georges de (1828-1894):
He is also called Dottore (=doctor) de Bellio (R31,p6). He was born in Bucharest, Rumania. He joined the impressionists at their meeting points, including dinners at café Riche. De Bellio did loan 13 paintings to the ‘impressionist’ expositions. In 1877 3 paintings of Monet (no. 95, 96, 98) and 3 of Sisley (no. 214, 215, 216). In 1879 6 paintings of Monet (no. 145, 146, 152, 164, 165, 166). And in 1881 one painting of Gauguin (no.33). (R2;R90II,p285). He also bought other works from Monet (R22,CR412+423+425+430). (R3,p647;R90II,p285)


Bérard, Paul (1833-1905):
Paul Bérard was an embassy secretary and a buiseness man (R3,p220;R5,p231). He had a town mansion at 20, Rue Pigalle in Paris (R5,p231). He also lived at the château Wargemont at the Normandy coast, just outside Dieppe (R31;R30;R5,p231). Renoir had met Bérard at Charpentier↓ (R3,p220). Renoir would stay with Bérard several times at Wargemont. Between 1879 and 1884 Renoir would make many portraits and paintings there (R31;R30). Bérard introduced Renoir to his businessfriends Gimpel and Clapisson (R5,p231). In 1881 Bérard lent a work of Pissarro to the 6th ‘impressionist’ exposition (no.79) (R90II,p286). 1905/05/08+09 there was a sale of Bérard his collection at Georges Petit; the revenues were high, namely Renoir CR457↓ (R31;R30,no602;R5,p230/1).

Bernier, Albert:
1910/11/22+23, sale collection de M. Albert Bernier at Hôtel Drouot in Paris, including 4 paintings of Guillaumin (iR261).


Blum, Ernest (1836-1907):
Dramatic author, journalist, columnist at Le Charivari and Le Gaulois and art-collector. Did loan 4 works for the 6th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1881, one of Forain (no.22) and 3 of Raffaëlli (no.91-93). Sale at Hôtel Drouot 1902/11/26, including works of Forain and Raffaëlli. (R90II,p286)

Brandon, Edouard (1831-97):
Brandon was partaker of the 1st ‘impressionist’ exposition. For this exposition he also did lent 3 works of Degas (no.55+57+61). He gathered a small collection,which was posthumously auctioned at Hôtel Drouot.

Caillebotte, Gustave (1848-94):
Caillebotte was partaker of 5 ‘impressionist’ expositions. He also was an important supporter of the other Impressionists and collector of their art-works. He lent several works for the ‘impressionist’ expositions: in 1877: 3 works of Degas (no.37+45+47), 1 of Monet (no.115), 2 of Pissarro (no.180+181) and 1 of Renoir (no.185); in 1879: 2 of Monet (no.143+144), 8 of Pissarro (no.181-186+192); in 1882: 1 of Monet (no.69).

Cahuzac, Louis-Sébastien-Henry de (1825-89):
De Cahuzac was marquis de Caux and equerry to Napoléon III. In 1882 he lent two works of Monet (no.57+91) to the 7th ‘impressionist’ exposition.

Mary Cassatt (1844-1926):
Cassatt joined 4 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions. She lent 3 works of Pissarro to these expositions: one in 1879 (no.200) and two in 1881 (no.75+77).

Chabrier, Emmanuel (1841-94):
Chabrier was composer. In 1879 he lent 1 work of Monet (no.153) for the 4th ‘impressionist’ exposition. The posthumous sale of his collection was at Hôtel Drouot 1896/03/26.

Charpentier, Georges (1846-1905):
Georges Charpentier was a supporter of the Impressionists (R5,p220). Some sources mention that he was born in 1849. In 1871 he inherited the publishing house of his father, who had published books of Victor Hugo, Balzac and others (R30,p7). He published works of Daudet, Flaubert, Maupassant and Zola (R3,p220). In 1875 Charpentier met Renoir and bought a first painting of him (at the Drouot auction), with whom he became befriended (R3,p220). In 1878  Charpentier pushed Renoir to submit to the Salon (R2,p245). 1879/04/10 Charpentier started publishing the illustrated journal ‘La Vie Moderne‘ (R3;R5,p112). His wife Marguerite Lemonnier (1848-1904) played an important role in cultural Paris. Since 1875 their house at the Place Saint-Germain-l’Auxerrois was a meeting point of naturalist writers, impressionist painters en socialist politicians, it was a literary and political salon (R3,p220;R31,no.44;R5,p110). 1907/04/11 there was an auction of the Charpentier collection (R31;R30).
Renoir depicted Mme Marguerite Charpentier at least 3 times between 1876 and 1878 (see also 3IE-1877-187), one time with her children Georgette and Paul↓ (R30,no269+321;R31;R5,p110). Earlier Renoir had painted in 1869 Marie-Pauline Charpentier and in 1870 Marie Charpentier (R30,no39+57), were they related to Georges Charpentier?
Georges Charpentier did loan 9 paintings to the ‘impressionist’ expositions. In 1877  he lent 1 painting of Monet (no106), 1 of Pissarro (no.172), 2 of Renoir (no.187+188) and 3 of Sisley (no.217+218+221). In 1879 he lent 1 painting of Pissarro (no.199) and in 1882 one of Monet (no.58).In 1879 his wife lent a work of Forain (no.98). (R2;R90II,p287) Charpentier also bought other works of Monet (R22,CR427) and Sisley (R5,p20).
1879/04/20 he bought 6 works of Sisley for 400 franc.
The posthumous sale of his collection was held at Hôtel Drouot 1907/04/11. Catalogue: 1907/04/18, Hôtel Drouot. Catalogue de collection de feu M. Georges Charpentier.  (link to iR40//bpt6k12482428).


Chocquet, Victor (1821-1909):
Note: other sources indicate that he died 1891 (R90II,p287). Chocquet retired in 1877 after years of service as a supervisor in the customs service. 1875 auction at Hôtel Drouot; discovers Renoir and others. Started to support Cézanne. 1876/02/04: met Monet through Cézanne. Choquet lived at 198, Rue de Rivoli, Paris. Monet  painted 4 paintings of the Tuileries from the top the building where Chocquet lived (R22,CR401-4); the first three of them exhibited at the 3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1877 (no.95+119+105). 1876: Chocquet did loan 8 paintings to the second impressionist exposition of 1876. Six of Renoir (no. 210, 211, 213, 214, 215, 216), one of Monet (no.158) and one of Pissarro (no. 199). 1877: Chocquet loaned most of the pictures Cézanne exhibited, but this was not noted in the catalogue (R2,p204). It is said that Chocquet daily attended the third impressionist exposition. 1877: buys a smaller copy of the ‘Moulin de la Galette’ of Renoir. 1877, Duranty writes to Zola: ‘whose wife … will some day have an income of 50.000 francs’. 1882/04: his wife had inherited a fortune (R5,p129). 1890: buys a big house in Rue Monsigny. 1891/04/07: Chocquet died. 1899: death of madame Chocquet. 1899, June: auction of their inheritance at Georges Petit.
Sources: R3,p654+159+192+200;R5,p94+104+129+181+223/4;R31;R2,p195+244;R22;R90II,p287. Note: Walther (R3) wrongly writes Choquet, as is done in the catalogues of the impressionist expositions.

Clapisson, Léon-Marie (1837-94):
Clapisson was a stock-brocker. In 1881 he lent 1 work of Pissarro (no.74) to the 6th ‘impressionist’ exposition.

Claretie, Jules (1840-1913):
Born as Arsène-Arnaud Claretie. He was a novelist, play writer and journalist. He lent 2 works of Raffaëlli to the ‘impressionist’ expositions: in 1880 (no.172) and in 1881 (no.115). The posthumous sale of his collection was at Hôtel Drouot 1914/05/08.

Clermont, Auguste-Henri-Louis de:
Painter; with Degas and Lepic co-founder of Cercle de l’union artistique. His wife lent for the 4th ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1879 a work of Degas (no.71).

Coquelin, Benoir-Constant (184-1909):
Also called Coquelin Aîné. He was the brother of Coquelin Cadet. He was an actor, lecturer and writer. At the 4th ‘impressionist’ exposition of 1879 he lent 1 work of Forain (no.99).

Félix-François Depeaux (1853-1920):
Depeaux was a coal tycoon and an important collector of art. He collected more than 600 art-works, including of 55 Sisley, 30 of Lebourg, 20 of Monet and also works of Renoir and Pissarro. In 1909 he made an important donation to the Rouen museum, including 30 pictures of Lebourg (M12;R88;iR23). In the 1880s Lebourg and Sisley lunched together with him at his home in Rouen (R88I,p428). Depeaux had several contacts with Pissarro and Sisley (R116I,p432;R116,p297). In total he owned 13 paintings of Pissarro (R116III,p940). There had been sales of his collection in 1901 (including 5 paintings of Monet), in 1906 (including 15 paintings of Monet), in 1921 (including 2 paintings of Monet) (R22IV,p1046).

Doria, Count (18xx-1899?):
Lived at château d’Orrouy, an estate about 73km north of Paris. Married with Isabelle, who was a niece of Zacharie Astruc (iR23). Supported artists like Cals and Lépine (iR69). Also contacts with Colin, Corot and Manet (iR35).
1899/05/04: posthumous auction sale of 685 works of Count Armand Doria, including a large number of paintings by Cals (iR65). It amouned the sum of 1.129.019 francs. The catalogue contained: paintings (1-251); watercolours (252-304); pastels (305-309); drawings (310-556); a collection of gravures (557-664; no titles); bronze by Barye (665-684; no titles); a ’tableau non catalogué (685). It contained many works by Cals, Colin, Guillaumin, Lépine, Renoir, Vignon  and also Barye, Corot, Daumier, Delacroix, Jongkind, Millet (JF), Rousseau (Th).
Album-souvenir de la collection de Armand Doria. Preface de Arsène Alexandre and L. Roger-Milès. Paris, 1899;  =iR40.
1899/05/04+05, sale collection M. le comte Armand Doria (link to iR40//bpt6k1248291r); see R154.
Sources: aR1;iR40;iR242;iR65.

Duret, Théodore:
See seperate page.

Faure, Jean-Baptiste (1830-1914):
Opera singer and composer; famous baritone in the Paris Opéra. One of the first collectors of impressionist works. Bought works from Degas, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley and Manet. At one time Fauré possessed 68x Manet, 30x Sisley, 23x Monet and a smaller number of Renoir and Pissarro. Befriended with many impressionists. Joined their meetings. Befriended with Durand-Ruel. 1870/71: stayed in London.
1872/04/29: bought 42 impressionist works at an auction. 1873: bought several Manets (2500-6000 franc) and 11 paintings of Degas. 1874: bought 6 works of Degas back from Durand-Ruel; received in return in 1876 two works and only in 1887 the other two promised; this poisoned their friendship. 1874 + 1876: Faure did loan 11 paintings to the first two impressionist expositions. In 1874 two of Degas (no. 54 + 63).  In 1876 nine of Monet (no. 148, 149, 151, 152, 154, 155, 156, 157, 160) and one of Degas (no.37). 1878: auction of part of the Fauré collection (42 works) in Hôtel Drouot. 1881: received the ‘Legion d’Honneur‘. Faure once had owned the following works of Monet: CR39, 57, 62, 77, 81, 83, 92, 93, 109, 126, 146?, 154, 166, 177, 187, 246, 255, 273, 274, 279?, 280, 292, 296, 311, 327, 341, 347, 368?, 369?, 373, 386, 409, 417, 418, 518, 748, 756, 759, 780, 826, 856, 893, 900, 1018, 1051, 1054, 1066, 1135, 1232. These are 50 paintings of which 5 are uncertain and of which 35 were made before 1877. (R22IV,p1047)
1906/03/19 – 31: “Exposition de 17 Tableaux de Claude Monet de la Collection Fauré.” Galeries Durand-Ruel, Paris.
Catalogue (In Database of Modern Exhibitions (DoME). European Paintings and Drawings 1905-1915. Last modified Jul 27, 2020. =iR261=R242).
1873/06/07, Paris. Auction Catalogue de la collection de M. Faure, with works of Delacroix, Corot, Dupré and other pre-impressionists, with engravings and extended information. (link to PDF at = iR19).
Other sources: R3,p661+193;R2,p177;R5,p73+81;R90II,p289;R22IV,p1019;R30.


Gachet, Dr. Paul-Ferdinand (1828-1909):
Doctor, homeopath, socialist, painter, printmaker and art-collector. Born in Lille (=Ryssel = Rijsel). Used as artist name Paul van Ryssel. Friendship with realists. Joined meetings with the Impressionists in Café Guerbois and Café Nouvelle Athènes. 1871: as a doctor connected with the Commune. 1872/04/09: bought a house at Rue Rémy in Auvers-sur-Oise. He had in his studio (on the attic) a Printing press. Cézanne, Guillaumin and Pissarro would make (in 1873) several prints on this press of which some were published in Paris à l’eau-forte in which Dr. Gachet also was involved. 1873/02: Cézanne stayed with him and/or lived closeby the whole of 1873. Friendship with and supporting Cézanne, Guillaumin, Pissarro, Renoir and Daubigny, including medical suppport. 1874: did loan 2 paintings to the 1st ‘impressionist exposition’, 1 of Cézanne (no.43) and 1 of Guillaumin (no.66). 1890: treated Vincent van Gogh., who also would make some prints on his press, including a portrait of Dr. Gachet. 1891: exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants. 1952: his collection was given to the French state and is now in the Musée d’Orsay.
Sources: R3,p663;R5,p78;R2,p120;R90II,p289;R179,p322;R46+62+113;R116I,p138+140-142;R34,p35;R179,p322.

Catalogue: 1919/12/01+02+03, sale collection Hazard (link to iR19//ia803105).



Hoschedé, Ernest (1837-1891):
Was a department-store owner, collector and art-critic. 1863:  Marriage with Alice Raingo (1844-1911). 1870: Alice inherits château Rottembourg in Montgeron. Hoschedé supports Monet, Sisley, Pissarro, Manet and others. 1876, Summer: Monet (+Manet) stay with them in Montgeron. Monet maked four decorative panels (R22,CR416+418+420+433), partly exhibited at the 3rd ‘impressionist’ exposition (3IE-1877-101 + 112). Monet painted their daughter Germaine (R22,CR434 = 3IE-1877-99). 1877: Hoschedé did loan 18 paintings to the 3rd impressionist exposition, indicated as ‘appartient à M. H…’ including 11 of Monet (no. 90, 91, 92, 93, 97, 99, 100, 101, 108, 109, 112), 4 of Pissarro (no. 170, 171, 175, 176) and 3 of Sisley (no. 211, 212, 213) (R90I,p289+290;R2). 1877/08/18: declared bankrupt having a debt of 82.500 franc to the art-dealers Durand-Ruel and George Petit. 1879?: the family moved in with Monet in Vétheuil. Shortly after Ernest went living in Paris. Alice stayed with Monet and moved with him to Poissy (1881) and later to Giverny (1883). 1891: death of Ernest. 1892: Claude Monet married Alice.
In total Hoschedé once possessed 36 paintings of Monet (including CR136+164+213+221+406+416-421+431+433+434+439+440+470+528+555+580?).
Auction sales at Hôtel Drouot:
1874/01/13: Hôtel Drouot. Catalogue de tableaux modernes; Auction of the Ernest Hoschedé collection. (link to iR40//bpt6k1241564q). Succesfull auction sale of impressionist paintings, including at least 2 paintings by Monet (CR138?+184), 6 paintings of Pissarro (including CCP83+236+249+270).
1875/04/20, . Catalogue de tableaux modernes; Auction of the Ernest Hoschedé collection.   (link to iR40//bpt6k12404553; link to iR19)
1878/06/05+06: Including at least 14 paintings by Monet (including CR84+153+157+166+202+205+210+263+362+383+399+417+432+445), 9 paintings of Pissarro (including CCP335+441+486+492+495); at least 4 paintings of Sisley (including probably CR102, 175, 208). Catalogue de tableaux modernes; Auction of the Ernest Hoschedé collection. (link to iR263; in javascript).

Huysmans, Joris-Karl (1848-1907):
Art-critic. Owned at least 2 drawings of Seurat (8IE-1886-181+182) (R207,p47).

Marx, Roger:
1914/05/11, Galerie Manzi, Joyant, Paris. Auction of 260 works by 66 artists, including Boudin, Cals, Cassatt, Degas, Forain, Gauguin, Guillaumin (1x), Lebourg, Lépine, Monet, Raffaëlli, Renoir, Seurat, Vignon. Catalogue of the auction sale of the Roger Marx collection.  (link iR40//bpt6k1248017h) and: Collection Roger Marx. Tableaux, Pastels, Dessins, Aquarelles, Sculptures.” In Database of Modern Exhibitions (DoME). European Paintings and Drawings 1905-1915. Last modified Mar 3, 2021. =iR261;



Murer, Eugène (1845/46-1906):
Born as Hyacinthe Eugène Meunier. Born in Moulins. Art collector, writer and later also a painter. Guillaumin was his youth friend. 1870 onwards: owner of a backery / patisserie / restaurant 85, Boulevard Voltaire, Paris. 1877/11: opened a restaurant at 95, Boulevard Voltaire in Paris. (R5,p101) Offered supper on Wednesday evenings to Renoir, Monet, Sisley, Pissarro, Guillaumin. Portrayed by Renoir and Pissarro. Bought works of Monet (R22, CR415). Lent money to Pissarro (R312,p28). 1878: co-organizer International exhibition. 1879: lends 7 works to the 4th ‘impressionist’ exhibition; 1 of Monet (no.162) and 6 by Pissarro (no.174-177+187+203). 1879/11: organized a lottery with a Pissarro painting as first prize. 1880/06: demands from Sisley to pay back the 1200 franc he borrowed him the last 3 years. 1881: moved to Auvers-sur-Oise. 1883: Camille Pissarro stayed at a hotel owned by Murer in Rouen; in August Lucien visited his father there (R312,p38). 1887/09: Renoir visits him there. 1887: owned 28 works of Sisley.  Around 1893 Pissarro saw him as someone who had taken advantage of his misfortues. 1896/05: exhibition of his collection, including 30 works of Renoir. 1906: died in Auvers-sur-Oise.
Sources: R3,p684+149+241;R5,p117;R2,p244;R31;R90II,p292/3;R312,p28+70.


Natanson, Thadée (1868-1951):
Born in Warsaw, Poland. Important collector of impressionist art. Acquainted with Gauguin, Monet, Pissarro, Redon, Renoir, Signac and Rodin. 15/6/1896: published an article on Renoir. Is often portrayed. Part of his collection is now in Musée National d’Art Moderne (R3,p685;R31)

Stumpf, F.:
Catalogue: 1906/05/07, sale collection M. F. Stumpf (link to iR40//bpt6k1246919t).

Viau, George:
1907, auction of his collection at Durand-Ruel galleries in Paris (R244;iR261)
1907/03/02: 1st auction of paintings (1-79) and pastels + watercolours (80-89): 1907/03/02: “Collection de M. George Viau.” In Database of Modern Exhibitions (DoME). European Paintings and Drawings 1905-1915. Last modified Jul 27, 2020. =iR261;iR272; auction of 89 works, including of Boudin, Cals, Cassatt, Cézanne, Degas, Gauguin, Guillaumin (6x), Lebourg, Lépine, Monet, Morrisot, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley.
1907/03/19: “Collection de M. George Viau (Deuxième Vente).” In Database of Modern Exhibitions (DoME). European Paintings and Drawings 1905-1915. Last modified Sep 8, 2020. =iR261;iR272; auction of 196 works, paintings (1-92); pastels, watercolours and drawings (93-184); etchings and litho’s (185-192; no titles):  including of Boudin, Brandon, Caillebotte, Cals, Cassatt, Cézanne, Colin, Degas, Forain, Gauguin, Guillaumin (5x), Lebourg, Pissarro, Redon, Renoir, Schuffenecker, Seurat, Signac, Sisley, Vignon and Zandomeneghi.
With works of: Boudin (8+0;3+8); Brandon (0;1+0); Caillebotte (0;1+0); Cals (0;2+0); Cassatt (2+0;0+2); Cézanne (3+0;1+0); Colin (0;1+0); Degas (0+4;0+3); Forain (0;0+5); Gauguin (0;2+0); Guillaumin (9+0;4+3); Lebourg (6+0;6+0); Lépine (2+0;0+0); Monet (5+0;0+0); Morisot (1+1;0+0); Pissarro (9+1;10+3); Redon (0;1+0); Renoir (15+0;7+2); Schuffeneckere (0;1+0); Seurat (0;0+1); Signac (0;1+0); Sisley (12+0;4+2); Vignon (0;7+0); Zandomeneghi (0;2+1).

My main source is the lexicon of Walther (R3,p642-705), the overview of lenders by Berson (R90II,p285-294) and data of Denvier (R5). For other sources see the general references (=R) see , for the references to internet pages (=iR) see.



Additional sources (=aRx):

  1.  Album-souvenir de la collection de Armand Doria. Preface de Arsène Alexandre and L. Roger-Milès. Paris, 1899; =iR40.
  2. x


As main sources I use the overview of lenders rendered by Berson (R90II,p285-294), the catalogues of the ‘impressionist’ expositions (R2;R90I;iR1), the Lexicon of Walther (R3,p642-705), Monneret (R88), Denvir (R5), Berger (R207). Additional sources / general references (=R) you’ll find in the references, references to internet pages (=iR) you’ll find here.


Recommanded citation: “Meta-Impressionism: Art-collectors; receiving recognition and income. Last modified 2023/09/12.

Note: additional info will be added.