Art dealers

under construction

Art dealers

 

Introduction:

Who were the most important art-dealers for the impressionists? Here you will find some basic information. The sources I used you’ll find in the references. My base sources are the lexicon of Walther (R3,p642-705) and the data of Denvier (R5). The art-dealers are mentioned in an alphabetical order.

Bernheim-Jeune:

  • A family of art-dealers: father Alexandre (1833-1915), sons Joseph (1870-1941) and Gaston (1870-1953) (R3,p647)
  • 1863 opening gallery in Rue Laffitte, Paris (R3)
  • One of the most important dealers in impressionist art (R3)
  • Befriended with Monet and Renoir (R3)
  • 1886/05: solo exhibition of Giuseppe de Nittis (R2,p427)
  • 1889/02/09 exhibition of 14 works of Sisley (R5,p222)
  • 1889/03/04 solo exhibition of 23 works of Pissarro (R5,p222)
  • After 1900 also dealing in art of Van Gogh, Cézanne and other post-impressionists (R3)
  • 1900, January-February: Renoir exhibition with 68 works (R31,p316)
  • 1903, April: Exposition d’Oeuvres de l’Ecole Impressionniste; with Renoir (9x) (R31,p316)
  • 1913, March: Renoir exhibition with 52 works (R31,p318)

 

Bing, Siegfried: (1838-1905)

  • Also called Samuel (R3,p648)
  • Born in Hamburg (R3)
  • 1871 opens gallery in Paris
  • Specialized in eastern art
  • Offered Impressionists (and later post-impressionists and symbolists) to exhibit  works in his gallery
  • 1889/05/03: exhibition in London, also with many works of Morisot (R5,p223)

 

Boussod, Valadon et Cie:

  • also called: Goupil-Boussod-Valadon
  • Etienne Boussod and Pierre Valadon had a gallery at the Place de l’Opéra and at the Boulevard Montmartre (R3,p650)
  • first dealt in Salon paintings
  • 1879: Theo van Gogh took over the Boulevard Montmartre gallery and started to sell impressionist works Cézanne (1x), Degas (23x), Gauguin (18x), Monet (24x), Pissarro (23x), Renoir (4x) and Sisley (7x) and Manet (5x) (R3,p650)
  • 1888, June-July: dix marines d’Antibes de M. Cl. Monet (R22IV,p1017)
  • 1889/02: solo exhibition Monet with 19? works (R22IV,p1017)
  • 1892, May: solo exhibition of Morisot (R42,p92)

 

Durand-Ruel, Paul (1831-1922)

Summary: Durand-Ruel started to support the Impressionist in the early 1870’s. 1874 onwards he had financial problems. In the early 1880’s he started to support the Impressionists again, this time on a more regular bases, even when he met in 1882 financial problems again. Organizes many exhibitions, also in London and New York. Durand-Ruel was crucial for the financial survival of many Impressionists and for the promotion of their work in France and on the international art-market. It’s interesting to know whose works he did sell and whose works he didn’t and why. 

  • 1851 works in the gallery of his father who supports painters of the Barbizon school (R3,p659)
  • 1865/06/15 takes over the gallery at the Rue de la Paix of his departed father (R3; R5,p35) and continues supporting the Barbizon school (R2,p379)
  • 1869 opens a new gallery at 11, Rue Peletier, Paris (R3)
  • 1870, end: meets in London Monet and Pissarro (R3; R5,p65)
  • 1870/12/10 exhibits 144 works in his London gallery, mainly of Barbizon painters like Corot, Courbeet, Diaz, Daubigny, Dupré and Millet, but also some works of Monet (1x?) and Pissarro (R5,p65; R22IV,p1016)
  • 1871/03/18: exhibits 139 works in his London gallery; with Monet (2x) and Pissarro (2x) (R5,p69; R22IV,p1016)
  • 1871, April: opens a Gallery in Brussels (R5,p69+214)
  • 1872 buys many paintings of Manet (R2; R3,p113)
    1872 starts to support Degas (since Januar), Monet (29 works), Pissarro, Renoir (since 1872/03/14; just about 1000 francs) and Sisley (since 1872/03/12) (R5,p72/3; R3,p135 R30; R2,p379)
    by the end of 1873 he had spent >70.00 francs on the Impressionists (R2,p106)
  • 1872/06/04 opens 4th exhibition of French painters in London; with Degas, Monet (?x), Pissarro and Sisley (R5,p73; R2)
  • 1872/11/02 opening of the 5th exhibition of French painters in London; with Degas, Manet, Monet (2x), Pissarro, Renoir (1x) and Sisley (R5,p73; R31,p315; R22IV,p1016)
  • 1873, March: 6th exhibition of French painters in London; with Degas, Manet, Monet (2x), Pissarro and Sisley (R5,p78; R22IV,p1016)
  • 1873, ?: 7th exhibition of French painters in London; with Monet (2x) (R22IV,p1016)
  • 1873: publishes a catalogue ‘Recueil d’estampes’ with 300 reproductions, including 20 of Delacroix, Corot, Millet and Rousseau, 7 of Courbet and Manet and a few of Degas, Monet, Pissarro and Sisley; with a foreword by Armand Silvestre (R3,p113)
  • 1874,printemps: 8th exhibition of French painters in London; with Monet (2x) (R22IV,p1016)
  • 1874,June: 9th exhibition of French painters in London with Manet, Monet (1x), Pissarro, Renoir (2x) and Sisley (R5,p85; R31,p315; R22IV,p1016)
  • 1874-80 financial problems; has to sell his obtained paintings (R3, R2,p146)
  • 1875/12: closes his gallery in London (R5,p92); he almost didn’t sell works of the Impressionists in England (R5,p77)
  • 1876/04/01 the second impressionist exposition is organized in his gallery; no financial succes (R3, x)
  • 1878/07/15 exhibition of 380 (or: 360) paintings of Delacroix, Millet, Rousseau, Troyon and others; no succes (R2,p262; R5,p110)
  • 1880 credit of Jules Feder, director of the Union générale banc; starts buying paintings again from Monet, Renoir (since 1881/01; R5,p122), Pissarro (1881/02 for 12.000 franc; R5,p122; R2,p390) and Sisley. Contracts the complete production of paintings in exchange of advance payments that garanties their livelihood (R2,p377; R3)
    In 1881 from Monet (30x), Sisley (20x) (R3, R2,p377)
    1881 onwards he also supports Cassatt (R44,p140)
  • 1880/09 exhibition in Oran, Alger; sends in 233 (most impressionist) paintings (R5,p118)
  • 1882/01/19 bankruptcy of the Union Générale; new financial problems (R2,p377; R3)
    Still he goes on buying works in 1882 from Monet (40x), Sisley (20x) and
    in 1883 Monet (30x), Sisley (>10x) (R2,p391)
  • 1882/07/01 ‘Impressionists in England’ exhibition in London; with Monet (4x), Renoir (R2,p382+391; R22IV,p1016; R31,p315)
  • hard rivalry with George Petit on the art market (R3)
  • 1881/05/18 buys a work of Degas for 5.000 franc (R5,p123)
  • 1882 co-organizes the seventh impressionist exposition (R3)
  • 1882/05/05: in London exhibition of impressionists paintings; with Cassatt, Degas, Monet, Renoir and Sisley and also pre-Impressionists Delacroix and Millet; receives good critics (R5,p129/130)
  • 1882/10/01 sends in works of Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley to a regional exhibition in Tours (R5,p130)
  • 1883: serie of solo exhibitions (mostly around 70 works): Degas refuses to join; Boudin; Monet (about 60x; o3/01-25); Renoir (April; 70 works); Pissarro (May); Sisley (June)
    9, Boulevard de la Madeleine, Paris (R31,p315; R5,p134/5)
  • 1883/04-07: exhibition of ‘La Société des Impressionnistes’ in London showing works of Boudin, Cassatt, Degas, Manet, Monet (4x), Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir (10x) and Sisley (R5,p134/5; R31,p315)
  • 1883: other shows with Impressionist paintings in Boston, Rotterdam and Berlin (R5,p422)
  • 1884, May: ‘Exposition de tableaux impressionnistes…’ in London; with Monet (5x?); (R22IV,p1016)
  • 1884: had to liquidate part of his stock because of worsening financial situation (R2,p422)
  • 1885, June: in Brussels “exposition de MM. Degas, Monet (3x?), Pissarro, Renoir et Sisley” (R5,p143; R31,p315; R22IV,p1017)
  • 1885/07/12: exhibition in Amsterdam with impressionists works (R5,p144)
  • 1885, Geneva; with Monet (2x) (r22IV,p1017)
  • 1885, Fall: Durand-Ruel had plans for a large group exhibition (R2,p440)
  • 1886, April-June: exhibition in New York ‘the impressionists of Paris’
    with about 300 paintings, Caillebotte (several), Cassatt (several), Degas (23x), Monet (48x), Morisot (several), Pissarro (42x), Renoir (38x), Seurat (3x), Signac (6x), Sisley (15x) and Manet (17x)
    Aril: in the American Art Galleries; with Monet (28x?), Renoir (38x), Seurat,
    05/25-June: in the National Academy of Design; with Monet (18x?), Renoir (38x),
    (R3, R5,p149; R22IV,p1017; R31,p315; R39,p300; R44,p140)
  • 1888/05-06: Exposition in Paris; with Renoir (24x) (R31,p315)
  • 1888 new gallery in New York led by his three sons (R3)
  • 1889/02/27: posthumes exhibition of 28 works of Sisley in New York (R5,p222)
  • 1891: first solo-exhibition of Cassatt (R3,p652)
  • 1892: Exposition S. Renoirs (110 works!) (R31,p315)
  • 1893: the only solo-exhibition of Degas (with landscapes in pastel) (R3,p180)
  • 1893: solo-exhibition Cassatt (R3,p652)
  • 1893/11/04 – 12/01: exhibition of 44 works of Gauguin after mediation of Degas (R36,p81)
  • 1894/03/07 solo exhibition of 98 works of Pissarro (R5,p194)
  • 1895: solo exhibition of Cassatt in New York (R44,p141; R3,p652)
  • 1896/05-06: exposition Renoir (42x) (R31,p316)
  • 1896: posthumous exposition of Morisot (R42,p92)
  • 1898, 1899, 1910, : exhibitions in Paris with works of Monet, Renoir, Pissarro and Sisley (R31,p316)
  • 1900, 1908, 1915 : exhibitions in Paris with works of Monet and Renoir (R31,p316)
  • 1905: exhibition in London: pictures by Boudin, Cézanne, Degas, Manet, Monet, Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir (59x), Sisley (R31,p216)
  • 1911 leaves his business to his sons (R3)

 

Legrand

  • Gallery at 22bis, Rue Lafitte, Paris
    1877: manager of the third impressionist exposition
    1877/ 05/28: expert auction Hôtel Drouot (R2,p262)
  • 1878/03/25: meeting at his gallery preparing a new impressionist exposition and discussing preconditions; Caillebotte, Cassatt, Degas, Desboutin, Guillaumin, Levert, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley, Tillot were invited; Morisot and Cézanne also, but were absent; Renoir having submitted to the Salon, was not invited (R2,p244-5)
  • 1875, Renoir painted his daughter Delphine in their home in Rue Rocroy (CR141) and later again in 1876 (R30,no184+230)

Martin (+/-1810 – +/- 1880)

  • 1876: loans: works of Sisley (no.237, 239, 240, 243)

 

Petit, Georges (1835-1900)

  • gallery at Rue de Sèze, Paris (R3,p686)
  • his father already showed paintings of Delacroix, Corot and the Barbizon school (R3)
  • 1880 start selling works of the impressionists (R3)
  • 1882 organize (with De Nittis)  yearly exposition International de peinture et de sculpture (R3; R5,p129)
  • 1885/05/04 Monet exhibits 10 works (R5,p143)
  • 1886/06/05 Monet and Renoir exhibit at his 5th exposition… (R5,p149)
  • 1889: exhibition Monet (141x?) – Rodin (R22IV,p1017)
  • 1889/04/30 posthumes exhibition of works of Sisley organised by Monet (R5,p223)
  • 1889//07/01 posthumes auction of the collection of Victor Chocquet (R5,p223/4)
  • 1898/06/03: Monet has a successful exhibition (R5,p216)
  • 1900/07/04: Georges Petit dies (R5,p228)

 

Tanguy, Julien-Francois (1825-1894):

  • Better known as ‘Père Tanguy’
  • 1870 moves to Paris (R3,p700)
  • anarchist and communist; deported to Brest (R3)
  • 1873 returns to Paris; starts a merchandise in paint and later in paintings (R3)
    • Rue Clauzel, Paris (R3; R5,p192)
    • also organizes exhibitions here (R3)
  • trades painting materials for paintings (R3; R5,p192)
  • supports Cézanne (R3; R5,p192)
  • 1883 meets Signac (R39,p299)
  • 1886 friendship with Van Gogh, who portrays him (R3)
  • his shop becomes a meeting place for Cézanne, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Pissarro, Seurat and Van Gogh
  • 1894 auction of his collection at Hôtel Drouot (R3)

 

Vollard, Ambroise (1867-1939):

  • Important art-dealer; successor of Theo van Gogh (R3,p702)
  • 1893 opens first gallery at 41, Rue Lafitte, Paris (R3)
  • sells work of Degas, Pissarro, Renoir (R3)
  • 1894 meets Renoir (R31)
  • 1895 organizes here also exhibitions (R3)
    1895 first solo exhibition Cézanne (R3, p653)
  • 1899 moves to 6, Rue Laffitte, Paris (R3)
  • first exhibition of Van Gogh (R3)
  • 1901 solo exhibition of Pissarro (R3)
  • 1904 solo exhibition of Matisse (R3)
  • publishes monograph of Cézanne, Degas and Renoir (R3)
  • x