School of Barbizon

Pre-Impressionism

The school of Barbizon

 

 

The school of Barbizon (or: Fontainebleau):
Barbizon is a village west of the Fontainebleau forest and about 56km south-east of Paris. In 1890 David Croal Thomson wrote the book The Barbizon school of Painters. He writes extensive about Corot, Daubigny, Diaz, Millet and Rousseau and less extensive about Dupré, Jacque and Troyon. This was the first time this name was mentioned. (R290,p48;R3,p24). I think it is better to speak of an artist colony, than of a ‘school’. One could include all French and foreigh artists that painted in the Fontainebleau forest more or less regularly (R290,p49). Anyway, it is a not sharply defined group of artists (R290,p9). One can discern a core group with frequent personal and artistic contacts: Corot, Daubigny, Diaz, Dupré, Jacque, Millet, Rousseau and Troyon (R290,p10). Others can be seen as forerunners, like Aligny, Cabat, Flers, Lapito and Michel. Others also were connected, but are seen as side-figures, like Barye, Chintreuil, Decamps, Français, Harpignies, Hervier, Huet, Laveille, Trouillebert and Ziem.
At first there were painters who more or less regular visited Fontainebleau, staying at the Ganne inn in Barbizon or in Chailly or Marlotte. This started already in the (late) 1820s. Later on some of them actually lived in Barbizon, namely Rousseau since 1836 and Corot, Jacque and Millet since 1849 (R59;R290).
Inspired by the English landscapists, the Barbizon painters started to paint real landscapes en-plein-air and especially in the forest of Fontainebleau. Alike the Impressionists they often rendered the effect of light during various conditions, namely various times of day, seasons and weather conditions. Although they sometimes rendered bright colours, their palet mostly was quite dark using a lot of browns, dark greens and greys. Their brushstrokes were more loose (R60,p30), but compared to the juxtaposed brushstrokes of the Impressionists still quite smooth.  Some claim they were no ‘plein-air’ painters and that they only made sketches in the open (R3,p646), but this vision is disputable. Art-critics criticised their lack of drawing and named their paintings unfinished, being just sketches rendering une première impression (R290,p56/7+68). Note: later the the Impressionist would receive the same critic.
Several of them were involved in initiatives for an (independent) exhibition apart from the Salon. In 1847 some of them formed a Salon Indépendant and in 1861 a Société National des Beaux-Arts was formed (R290,p53). Corot, Daubigny and Diaz were involved in other initiatives in 1867 + 1869 and Rousseau only in 1867. But they didn’t join the ‘Société Anonyme des Artistes…’ nor the ‘impressionist’ expositions.
In France there were many landscapists that aligned with the views of the Barbizon painters. They also had influence on the Dutch landscapists of the Hague school and on Vincent van Gogh. Especially the ‘grey sentiment’ was admired. (R290,p8+89-97).

 

Aligny (Claude-Félix-Théodore Caruelle d’Aligny; 1798-1871):
Aligny made his debut at the Salon of 1822, he received a 2nd class medal (Paysage) in 1831 and a 1st class medal in 1837. He was appointed Chevalier de Légion d’Honneur 1842/07/02, as director of the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyon in 1860 and in 1861 as Membre correspondant de l’Institut (iR1;R290,p129;R60,p39). At the Exposition Universelle of 1855 he was present with 5 paintings and 2 drawings (iR1). He also was present at the World Exhibition in London in 1862 (iR3). At the Centennale Exposition of 1889 2 drawings were exhibited and in 1900 1 study (R231).
From 1824 till 1827 he stayed in Rome and painted together with Corot and Édouard Bertin (1797-1871). The friendships would last and they would meet in the Ganne Inn in Barbizon. (R290,p129;R60,p39) Aligny yearly painted in Fontainebleau since 1828 (R59,p8; till 1840 doesn’t seem correct, since 1824 neither; R290,p60). In 1851 he bought a house at 22, Rue Delort in Bourron-Marlotte, after first renting it since 1831 or 1837. Here he received Barye, Bertin, Brascassat, Corot, Descamps, Diaz and Rousseau, who also were called the ‘Groupe de Marlotte’. (R290,p129+130+48+60).
Aligny mainly painted mythological and biblical scenes in idealized landscapes with classical architecture (R290,p129). In that sense he is not a Barbizon painter. He also rendered the contrasts between light and shadow (R60,p39).  more info;

 

Barye (Antoine-Louis; 1795-1875):
In 1818 Barye was admitted at the École des Beaux-Arts. He debuted at the Salon of 1827. Barye had been merely known as a sculptor. In his lifetime he never exhibited his oil paintings. After his death in 1875 around 300 paintings and watercolours were exhibited at the École des Beaux-Arts and later auctioned. 70 of them depicted Barbizon and its surroundings. He had many contacts with Aligny, Corot, Decamps, Diaz, Dupré, Huet and Rousseau. In 1847 he had taken an initiative for a Salon Indépendant. Daumier, Decamps, Dupré, Jacque, Jeanron and Scheffer joined the initiative, that was supported by Delaroche, Delacroix and Vernet. In 1867 he was appointed as member of the Académie and in 1869 he was part of the jury of the Salon. (R290,p132;iR1)

 

Brascassat (Raymond; 1804-67):
Brascassat had several connections with the Barbizon painters. He was a genre painter depicting cattle (R290,p102). In 1835 and 1847 he visited Holland (R290,p102). In 1848 he became a member of the Royal Academie of Fine Art in Amsterdam (R290,p103).

 

Cabat (Nicolas-Louis; 1812-1893):
Cabat made his debut at the Salon in 1833. He received a 2nd class medal in 1834 (Paysage). Cabat was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur, in 1843 as Chevalier and in 1855 as Officier. At the Exposition Universelle Cabat was present in 1855 with 4 paintings, in 1867 with 2, in 1889 at the Oeuvres d’Art with 5 and at the Centennale with 6 art-works and in 1900 with (at least) 2 paintings. In 1867 he received a 3rd class medal. In the same year he was appointed as member of the Institut and professor at the Académie des Beaux-Arts. From 1878 till 1885 he was director of the Académie de France in Rome.
Cabat had connections with Corot, Decamps, Diaz, Dupré, Michel and Troyon. Since 1832 he painted in Barbizon and its surroundings. In his landscapes he often depicted religious or allogoric scenes. He is seen as a forerunner of the Barbizon painters.
(R290,p10+133/4;R231;iR1;iR4)

 

Chintreuil (Antoine; 1814-1873):
Chintreuil was born in Pont-de-Vaux in the department of the Ain (M1). In 1842 Chintreuil studied at the studio of Delaroche. In 1843 he met Corot who is called his teacher in the Salon catalogues. At the Exposition Universelle works of Chintreuil were exhitibed: in 1855 one painting, In 1867 two, in 1878 two, in 1889 four, in 1900 five. In 1867 he received a medal, from 1868-70 he exhibited ‘exempté’ at the Salon and in 1872 hors concours. In 1870 and 1872 he was member of the jury of the Paris Salon (R59, p.184; see ). From 1850 till 1857 he lived in Igny and frequently painted in the surroundings of Barbizon. Still, some sources don’t include him to the Barbizon painters (R290,p10).  In 1861 he made studies of the sea and the changing tones of the sky in Fécamps at the Normandy coast (M61). In 1873 he died in La Tournelle-Septeuil, in the Seine-et-Oise district, where he had been living since 1857 (iR3;M61). In 1874 there had been a retrospective organised at the École des Beaux-Arts (R88II,p397). Chintreuil was a pre-impressionist, he often rendered the influence of weather and the time of day. But his brushstroke stays more smooth. His work is characterised by a dramatic treatment of the atmosphere and the light (M1). More info; more pictures.

Corot (Jean-Baptiste-Camille; 1796-1875):
Corot was the teacher of many ‘impressionists’, so I will render a seperate page to him, see -/- link.

 

Daubigny (Charles-François; 1817-1878):
His father Edmé (1789-1843) was his teacher. In 1836 he made a trip to Italy. In 1843 he moved to Barbizon (Grande Rue). In 1846 his son Karl (1846-86) was born, who also would become a painter. 1856 or 1857 onwards he painted in his studio-boat ‘Le Bottin’ (R59,p193;R290,p142). In 1860 he moved to Auvers-sur-Oise, painted here with Corot and Daumier. He was a member of the Société des Aquafortistes (1862-67) (R290,p197). In 1870/71, during the French-Prussian war, he stayed in London, where he introduced Monet and Pissarro to the art-dealer Durand-Ruel (R22I,p86). The next year he went (with Monet??) to Holland. Already around 1859 Monet admired Daubigny (R22I,p24)
Charles Daubigny made his debut at the Salon of 1838, after being rejected in 1837. In 1848 he received a 2nd class medal (Paysage) and in 1853 + 1857 + 1859 he received a 1st class medal. At the Exposition Universelle of 1855 he received a 3rd class medal and in 1867 a 1st class medal. In 1855 at the Exposition Universelle he exhibited 4 paintings, in 1867 8 paintings and 3 engravings, in 1878 9 paintings, at the Centennale of 1889 11 paintings and 4 engravings were shown and in 1900 13 paintings. In 1865 + 1868 + + 1869 + 1870 he was a member of the jury of the Salon, where he defended the Impressionists. Daubigny was appointed in the Légion d’honneur, 1859/07/15 as  Chevalier and in 1874 as Officier (R231;iR1).
Charles Daubigny is seen as an important pre-impressionist. He was one of the first who  painted en-plein-air. In many of his pictures he rendered the time of day. His brushstrokes sometimes are quite lively. He was mainly a landscapist. Although some works are very colourfull, he often used greyish, brownish and dark green tones. The amount of paintings made in and around Barbizon is lilmited. Figure paintings are rare.
(My main sources are: R290,p142-149;R59;R9,p215;R3,p657;R22I;R231;iR1; more info)

Decamps (Alexandre-Gabriel; 1803-60):
Decamps made his debut at the Salon of 1827. He received a 2nd class medal in 1831 (Genre) and a 1st class medal in 1834. He was appoint in the Légion d’Honneur as Chevalier 1839/06/27 and as Officier 1851/05/02. At the Exposition Universelle of 1855 he exhibited 45 paintings and 6 drawings, which is more than Ingres and Delacroix.
Decamps is not a typical Barbizon painter. He painted genre pieces, hunting scenes, history pieces and oriental scenes. Curious are the (satirical) paintings of monkeys dressed and behaving as humans. So his is just partly a landscapist. In his landscapes he sometimes depicted religious scenes. Many of the landscapes he made in the surroudings of Fontainebleau were destroyed. Sometimes his work is dramatised with clair-obscure effects, which indicates Romantic influences. In the early 1840s he settled in Chailly and in 1850 he moved to Fontainebleau. Decamps had contacts with Cabat, Corot, Diaz, Dupré, Huet. In 1847 he joined Barye, Daumier, Dupré, Rousseau, etc. in the Salon Indépendant. (R290,p150-152;iR1;R231)

 

Diaz (Narcisse Diaz de la Peña, 1807-1876):
Diaz de la Peña was born in Bordeaux. His parents were Spanish. In 1831 he made his debut at the Salon. In 1844 he received a 3rd class medal (Genre), in 1846 a 2nd class medal and in 1848 a 1st class medal. He was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur as Chevalier in 1851/05/04. At the Exposition Universelle of 1855 6 of his paintings were exhibited. In 1889 at the Centennale Exposition 10 paintings and several litho’s and in 1900 8 paintings. In 1872 he exhibited in Brussels and was appointed Chevalier in the Order of Leopold. A review wrote: ‘Brilliant colour was his greatest strength; the form was sometimes neglected.’ (R290,p154) In 1877, after his death in 1876, there was an exhibition at the École des Beaux-Arts (iR23). Adams states, that Diaz had not much succes at the Salon, but good sells through art-dealers (up to 8.000 franc; R59,p184), I doubt if this is fully true.
In the 1830’s Diaz often painted in Fontainebleau (with Rousseau). Since 1835 he often stayed at the inn of Ganne in Barbizon. Later he shared a studio with Millet. He also had contacts with Cabat, Decamps, Dupré and Jongkind. In 1864 he advised Renoir not to use bitumen-black (R32, p12). In 1867 he supported Bazille’s request for an independent exposition.
Diaz is seen as a pre-impressionist. He often rendered the time of day and the influence of weather (especially storms). His landscapes are not very bright using a lot of browns, greys and dark greens. He often painted undergrowth, clearings and ponds. Diaz also painted many mythological, religious and oriental themes, sometimes a bit sentimental. He also painted some still lives and portraits. Many of his paintings were quite small.
(Main sources: R290,p154-158;R59;iR1;R231; more info; pictures and info at Joconde =iR23)

 

Dupré (Jules; 1811-1889):
Jules Dupré was born in 1811 in Nantes. (In the 1830s) he met Rousseau and they would often paint together. Rousseau was rejected by the Salon jury in 1836 + 37 + 38 (R59,p103). Dupré formally protested against this rejection and organised an association of ‘réfusés’ at his home. He also stopped submitting his paintings as did many of his colleagues . The organisation of an independent exhibition (in 1847) didn’t succeed. Around 1847 Corot, Daumier, Daubigny, Dupré, Flers and Lavieille formed the ‘groupe de L’Isle-Adam’ and painted in these surroundings. He would later settle here, some say in 1850 others in 1872, anyway he would die here in 1889. Dupré made short stays in Barbizon, but still is seen as one of the Barbizon painters. He also had contacts with Troyon and was influenced by Cabat, Decamps and Dutch and English landscapists. In his later years the friendship with Rousseau ended. Since 1868 he painted many seascapes in Cayeux-sur-Mer. Dupré is an pre-impressionist; he often renders the time of day and the influence of the weather; his brushstroke is often quite vivid. Still his palet is quite dark and grey. Vincent van Gogh wrote in 1884 ‘Dupré is perhaps even more colourist than Cort and Daubigny’ (R290,p95).
Jules Dupré made his debut at the Salon of 1831. In 1833 (or 1834) he received a 2nd class medal (iR1;R231).  ; 1839: protest against the rejection of Rousseau; in general not much succes at the Salon, but good sells through art-dealers (R59, p.184); At the Exposition Universelle of 1867 he exhibited 12 paintings, all were loans. He received a 2nd class medal. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 he was ‘attaché au Commissariat des Expositions’. At the Oeuvres d’Art exhibition he showed 4 paintings. At the Centennale there were 19 catalogue numbers, including 12 paintings, 17 drawings and 6 lithographs. At the Centennale Exposition of 1900 there were (at least) 10 paintings of Dupré. It’s striking that most of his works were loans, none came from a museum and just 2 had been exhibited before at the Salon. Dupré was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur, in 1849 as Chevalier and in 1870 as Officier. Note: both years he hadn’t exhibited at the Salon.
(My main sources are: R290,p159-161;R59;R9,p262;R231;iR1;iR23; more info.)

 

Flers (Camille; 1802-68):
Is seen as one of the forerunners of the Barbizon painters and is said to be one of the first who discovered the forest of Fontainebleau (R290,p10+162). He also would paint frequently in Normandy, the Auvergne en Picardy. In the early 1840s he made a trip to Switserland and in 1845 to Holland. He was the teacher of Cabat and had contacts with Diaz, Dupré and Decamps, who called him a ‘naturalist romanticist’ (R290,p162). In 1853 he joined the ‘groupe de Marlotte’, including Aligny, Barye, Brascassat and Decamps. After being rejected in 1827 he frequently exhibited at the Salon since 1831. In 1849 he was appointed Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur. In 1855 he exhibited at the Exposition Universelle. (Main sources: R290,p162+48)

 

Français (François-Louis; 1814-97):
François-Louis Français was born in Plombières (Vosges). He was a pupil of J. Gigoux and Corot. He made his debut at the Salon of 1837, received a 3rd class medal (Paysage) in 1841 and a 1st class medal in 1848. At the Exposition Universelle he exhibited in 1855 five paintings, in 1867 also five, in 1878 three paintings and 6 watercolours, in 1878 at the Oeuvres d’Art 10 paintings and at the Centennale of 1889 five paintings, 6 watercolours, 2 drawings and 10 lithos and at the Centennale of 1900 at least 2 paintings. In 1855 and 1867 he received a 1st class medal and in 1878 a medal of Honnor. He was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur, 1853/07/26 as Chevalier and in 1867 as Officier (iR1;R231) He was a landscapist and befriended with the Barbizon-painters. Note: some sources don’t include him as a Barbizon painter (R290). More info; more info (=iR4).

 

Harpignies (Henri-Joseph; 1819-1916):
Harpignies was influenced by Cabat. 1854 onwards in painted in Marlotte and its surroundings. He had contacts with Corot. He also was known for his watercolours.
Harpignies made his debut at the Salon of 1853. He exhibited at the Salon des Refusés of 1863. At the Salon he received medals in 1866 + 68 + 69. At the Exposition Universelle of 1867 he exhibited 2 paintings, in 1878 5 paintings and more than 6 watercolours; in 1889 10 paintings. At the Centennale of 1889 he exhibited 3 paintings and 2 watercolours and in 1900 at least 1 painting. He was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur as Chevalier in 1875 and as Officier in 1883.
(Main sources: iR1;R231;R290,p163;R9,p364)

 

Hervier (Adolphe; 1818-79):
Hervier regularly painted in Barbizon and surroundings. He had contacts with Corot, Decamps and Jacque. He made his debut at the Salon in 1849 after being refused several times. (R290,p164/5)

 

Huet (Paul; 1803-1869):
Paul Huet received a 2nd class medal at the Salon of 1833 and a 1st class medal in 1848. From 1866 till 1868 he exhibited hors concours. At the Exposition Universelle of 1855 he exhibited 9 works, including 6 paintings. He received a 1st class medal. In 1867 he exhibited 8 paintings, in 1878 there were 14 works exhibited including 3 paintings, at the Centennale of 1889 24 works including 7 paintings at in 1900 at least 2 paintings. (iR1;R231) In 1869, the year of his death, there was a retrospective held at the Salon (R88II,p393). He was appointed Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur 1841/06/22.
Paul Huet was influenced by the English landscapists. He was befriended with Bonington, met him in 1820 and painted with him in Normandie (R60,p66;R290,p166). First started painting in Fontainebleau in the mid-1820s (R59,p8). He often painted here with Corot (and also in Honfleur) (R60,p66). He stayed at the Ganne inn in Barbizon and at café Le Cheval Blanc (in Paris), where he met Barye, Decamps, Diaz, Dupré and Rousseau (R290,p166). He also often worked with Delacroix (in the 1850s). He also was acquinted with Troyon. He made travels to Italy (in 1841), the south of France, Belgium and Holland (in 1864) (R290,p166).
Huet was a pre-impressionist. He painted en-plein-air since 1815, especially landscapes full of movement and harassment (R60,p66). His brushstroke sometimes was quite lively. His skies could be melancholic and treathening (R290,p166). He often depicted undergrowth (R290,p166/7).
(Main sources: R290,p166/7;iR1;R231; more info; more pictures)

 

Jacque (Charles-Emile; 1813-94):
At the Salon Charles Jacque received a 3rd class medal in 1851 (Gravure), in 1861 (Paysage et Animaux) and in 1863. In 1864 he also received a medal. He exhibited hors concours 1866 onwards. At the Exposition Universelle of 1867 he exhibited 15 engravings and received a 3rd class medal. In 1889 he exhibited 3 paintings and 3 engravings. At the Centennale of the same year 2 paintings, 2 drawings and 20 engravings were exhibited and in 1900 at least 2 paintings.
In his early years Jacque met Cabat and Michel. In 1845 he met Millet. (R290,p168). In 1849 they went to live in Barbizon and became neighbours (R290,p46; some say since 1847). Their friendship ended in 1852 (or 1860). He was befriended with Rousseau, but this ended in 1854. (R290,p48+168).
Jacque started as an engraver. Later he painted many animals, especially flocks of sheep. He was a Pre-impressionist, he used bright colours in several pictures, but still the browns, greys and dark greens dominate. His brushstroke is mostly smooth, rendering detail. In his later years his brushstroke became more rough.
Jacque also bred chickens, became rich and dealt in houses and owned a furniture factory.
(Main sources: R290,p168-170. More info)

 

Lapito (Auguste; 1803-74):
Lapito is seen as a forerunner of the Barbizon painters. He was acknowledged at the Salon of 1827 and received a 1st class medal in 1835. He made several travels and also exhibited in Holland and Belgium. He is criticised for idealizing nature. (R290,p171)

 

Lavielle (Eugène-Antoine; 1820-1889):
In 1841 Lavielle was (the favorite) pupil of Corot. He regularly stayed at the Ganne inn in Barbizon and in 1852 moved into a house in the Grande Rue. He had contacts with Aligny, Anastasi, Brascassat, Chintreuil, Daubigny, Diaz, (Léon) Fleury, Millet and Rousseau. He often depicted gloomy winter landscapes and evening moods.

 

Michel (Georges; 1763-1843):
Georges Michel is seen as one of the forerunners of the Barbizon painters. Others remark that is work only became known to the Barbizon painters in the 1840s and that he was not so remarkable and profetic as some have said (R290,p10+32). He was influenced by the 17th century Dutch landscapists. He was admired, by Dupré and Jacque, for his powerful and free brushstroke. He had no contacts with the Barbizon painters, but (after his death in 1843) collected his work. He often depicted heavy clouds and clair-obscure.  (R290,p173-175)

 

Millet (Jean-Francois; 1814-1875):
Millet made his debut at the Salon in 1840. He received a second class medal in 1853 (Genre et Paysage) and a medal in 1864. Since 1867 he exhibited hors concours. 1870 was the last time he exhibited at the Salon. At the Exposition Universelle of 1855 he exhibited 1 painting, in 1867 he exhibited 9 paintings and received a 1st class medal. At the Centennale of 1889 there were 13 paintings and 31 drawings / pastels exhibited and in 1900 at least 6 paintings. (iR1;R231;R290)
In 1846 Millet made his acquaintance with Alfred Sensier, who became his friend and biographer (1881: La vie et l’oeuvre de Jean-François Millet). In 1846 he also met other Barbizon-Painters. In 1849 he moved to Barbizon and was a neighbour of Jacque (R3,p27;R59,p144;R290,p46; in 1861 their friendship ended). He became close friends with Rousseau who also lived in Barbizon. He also had contacts with Barye, Diaz, Dupré, Lavieille, Troyon. Untill the early 1860s Millet had not much recognition, didn’t sell much and was quite poor. His peasant figures were seen as ugly and shocking. He was a member of the Société des Aquafortistes (1862-67) (R290,p197). In 1875 he died in Barbizon and was burried beside Rousseau at the cemetary of closeby Chailly. After his death his works were auctioned.
Millet was a pre-impressionist. More than once, he rendered the time of day, season and weather conditions. In most of his paintings the browns and greys are dominant. He was an informal teacher of Rouart (R45,p9), who also owned a large collection of his works (see). For Vincent van Gogh Millet was his great example (R290,p95).
Note: Jean-François was the older brother of Jean-Baptiste Millet (1831-1906) who exhibited at the 2nd ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1876.
(Main sources: R290,p176-179; More info)

 

Rousseau (Theodore; 1812-1867):
Theodore Rousseau is seen as the leader of the Barbizon-school (R59,p102). In 1827 he first visited the surroundings of the Fontainebleau forest (R59,p8;R290,p180). In1829 he stayed in Chailly and Moret (R290,p180). In 1833 he stayed at Lion d’Or, run by Mère Lemoine, in Chailly (R290,p48+183). Since then, he became a regular visitor of the Fontainebleau forest (R290,p183). In the Paris café Le cheval blanc, he met Cabat, Decamps, Diaz,  and Huet (R290,p180). In 1836 he stayed for the first time in Barbizon (R290,p180;R59,p8). In the same year he met Aligny and Diaz (R290,p48+180). He also painted and travelled with Dupré (R290,p180). In 1840 he met Corot (R290,p180). In 1844 he was a regular visitor (R290,p54). Since 1847 he rented his own house in Barbizon (R290,p48+180). Here he met Barye, Daumier, Diaz, (Dupré), Jacque, Millet and Ziem (R290,p48). The friendship with Jacque ended in 1854 (R290,p48).
Rousseau made his debut at the Salon of 1831. In 1834 he received a  3rd class medal (Paysage). He was refused in 1836 + 1837 + 1838 (R290,p54;R59;iR1). After that he stopped submitting (since 1841) and was supported by his friends who also stopped submitting. In 1847 there was an attempt to establish an independent Salon by Barye, Decamps, Dupré, Jacque, Ary Scheffer (R290,p53+180;R59). In 1848 there was no jury at the Salon and Corot, Dupré and Rousseau were member of the organisational committee (R290,p49). In 1849 Rousseau was accepted again at the Salon and received a 1st class medal (R59,p103-112;iR1). 1852/07/16 he was appointed Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur. At the Exposition Universelle of 1855 Rousseau exhibited 13 paintings and received a 1st class medal. In 1867, the year he died, there were 8 paintings exhibited; he had been chairman of the jury (R290,p57+180; some say he (also) president of the jury of the Paris Salon (R59,p183). In the same year In 1867 Rousseau supported Bazille’s request for an independent exposition (R59,p183). At the Centennale of 1889 there were 21 works exhibited, including 16 paintings and in 1900 at least 9 paintings.
Rousseau was a pre-impressionist. He rendered the time of day and the influence of season and weather. His palet is quite dark with many browns, dark greens and greys. His brushstroke ( in smaller pictures) sometimes is quite expressive. Rouseau painted many deserted landscapes, panoramic views and tree studies.
(Main sources: R290,p180-188;R231;iR1. More info.)

 

Trouillebert (Paul Désiré; 1829-1900):
Trouillebert made his debut at the Salon in 1865. First he painted genre pieces, portraits and nudes. Later on he made landscapes, namely grey river banks. His style is compared and confused with Corot. One can seen him as a post-bloom of the School of Barbizon.
(Main sources: R290,p189).

 

Troyon, Constant (1810-1865):
Troyon already painted in the forest of Fontainebleau since about 1830. Around 1832 he met Diaz, Dupré, Flers and Rousseau. Later since 1840 he was the most regular visitor of the Ganne Inn in Barbizon. Here he met Aligny, Cabat and Français. (R290,p48+190). He was influenced by the Dutch landscapist Paulus Potter. Troyon was merely a landscapist. After 1850 his landscapes became dominant with animals. In his composition he oftenn places people and animals in the center. He also made small series of a same theme.
Troyon made his debut at the Salon of 1833. In 1838 he received a 3rd class medal (Paysage), in 1840 a 2nd class medal and in 1846 and 1848 he received 1st class medals. 1849/09/11 he was appointed Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur. At the Exposition Universelle of 1855 he exhibited 9 paintings, he was member of the admissions jury and he received a 1st class medal. In 1867, posthumous, there were 5 paintings exhibited, at the Centennale of 1889 10 paintings and 1 pastel and in 1900 at least 5 paintings.
Troyon regularly exhibited abroad. In 1860 he exhibited in Rotterdam, where one review wrote about ’the light that he casts over it with a genial hand’ (R290,p64+69). Already in 1845 he was appointed as member of honor of the Academie of Fine Art in Amsterdam (R290,p97+190). Troyon sold his paintings for 5.000 francs (R59, p.162). After his death in 1865, there was an auction held in Januar 1866, which generated more than 500.000 francs (R290,p194).
Troyon was a pre-impressionist. His colours often were quite bright. He often rendered the time of day. His brushstroke was characterised by ’touches separées’, which was later admired by Boudin and Monet.
(Main sources: R290;R231;iR1; More info; pictures.)

 

Ziem (Félix):
Ziem regularly worked together with Rousseau in Barbizon (R290,p99). In 1866 Ziem bought a house in Barbizon (R290,p99). Ziem also painted in Venice and in Holland (R290,p99). One cirtic in 1855 wrote about ‘a chaos of colourful and brilliant colours’ (R290,p65).

 

 

Sources:
My main sources are Adams (1994=R59); Pomarède (1996=R60); Roberts (1965=R61); Tilborgh (1988=R62); Sillevis (1985=R290); Weisberg (1985=R226); the Exposition Universelle catalogues (R231); the Salon database (iR1); the Athenaeum (iR2); WikiPedia (iR3-5); WikiMedia (iR6); Impressionist Gallery (iR22). See the link for other general References (=Rx) and to the internet references (=iRx). See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.
More info + info (=iR22).

 

 

Recommanded citation: “Pre-Impressionism: The School of Barbizon. Last modified 2022/07/02.  https://www.impressionism.nl/school-of-barbizon/