Salon Chronology

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Salon

Chronology

 

Introduction:

On this page important data in the history of the Salon are rendered. Sometimes there is a link to more info on another page on this website or an external link to another website. For the general references see. For references to internet pages see.

 

1673:

Start of the exhibitions of members of the Académie called Salon des Beaux-Arts in the large Salon in the royal palace in the Louvre (R3,p56)

1791:

Also non-members of the Académie were admitted (R3,p56)

 

1796

Almost half of the paintings exhibited were landscapes (R60,p55)

1797

Start Prix de Rome for history painting (R59, p24) or in 1801 = paysage historique (R60,p55) or 1816? see below

 

1816

Start Prix de Rome for landscape painting / historical landscape (Fr.: Paysage historique) (R59, p24; R61,p14) or in 1817 (R60,p97)

1817

First winner Prix de Rome for history painting / historical landscape: Achille-Atna Michallon with Démocrite et les Abdéritains (R59, p20; R60, p76; R61,p12)

1824

Golden medals for Bonington (a fishmarket) and Constable (The Haywain). Their works (rendering nature as it is) stimulated the Barbizon-painters to do the same. (R59,p51)

1825

Legion d’Honneur for Daguerre and his ‘The effect of fog and snow seen through a ruined Gothic colonnade’. In this work he rendered the effects of light and shade under influence of weather conditions, an important theme for the later Impressionists. (R59, p66)

 

1834

Rousseau received a third-class medal. (R59, p103)

1836

Rousseau was rejected by the jury and would so again in ’37 and ’38 after which he stopped submitting his paintings. (R59,p103) Dupré formally protested against this rejection, organised an association of ‘réfusés’ at his home,  and also stopped submitting his paintings as did many of his colleagues . The organisation of an independent exhibition (in 1847) didn’t succeed. Still Rousseau’s works were exhibited in the studios of Huet and Scheffer (R59,p109+112). (See also an ambivalent relation.)

1842

Debut Rosa Bonheur (R59,p161).

 

1844

Debut of Courbet (R59,p139).

1848
  • The jury was abolished, all the works (=5180) submitted were accepted (R3,p56).
  • Prize winners were Corot, Diaz, Troyon, Daubigny and Rosa Bonheur. (R59,p132+136)
1853
  • The Académie got back privileges they had lost in 1830.
    Since then the Salon was organised two-yearly and the government almost stopped buying landscapes (R59, p182)
  • Finish of the Palais de l’Industrie at the Champs Elysées. The Salon will be held here (R5,p25)
1854

Jules Breton received a third-class medal for his ‘les glaneuses’ . Painted in a realist style it showed more an idealized image of peasant life, than the hardships of the very poorest who only had the right to glean (R59, p158-174).

1855
  • Exposition Universelle; Troyon was member of the jury (R59,p161) .
  • Courbet organised his ‘Pavillion de Réalisme’ in which he showed 40 paintings (R59, p142)
1856:

From 1855-63 the Salon was held every two years; so this year there was no Salon (R3,p56)

1857:

 

1858:

From 1855-63 the Salon was held every two years; so this year there was no Salon (R3,p56)

1859:
  • Delacroix in the jury; protests the rejection of Manet; (R3,p36)
1860:

From 1855-63 the Salon was held every two years; so this year there was no Salon (R3,p56)

1861:

 

 1862:

From 1855-63 the Salon was held every two years; so this year there was no Salon (R3,p56)

1863
  • Of the 5000 submitted works, a fast number of about 2800 works were rejected by the Salon Jury (R5,p24) or 4000 works (R3,p58+60). Count Alfred-Emilien de Nieuwerkerke (1811-92) was head of the Jury.
    On decree by Napoleon III a Salon de Réfusés was held, opening 1863/05/15 in a part of the Palais de l’Industrie. ‘Le déjeuner sur l’herbe’ by Manet causes tumult (R5,p24-7).
  • 1863/11/13 changes by imperial decree: the Académie lost control of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, the government now appoints the employee’s ; the Ecole began to appreciate originality; the Prix de Rome for historical landscape stopped; pupils had to be french and between 15 and 25 years (R59,p183; R60,p97; R5,p26)
  • New rules for the Salon: 1. no more than three works may be submitted; 2. earlier price-winners don’t have to be judged by the Jury again.
  • Until 1863 the Jury consisted of members of the Académie des Beaux-Arts. Since 1864 3/4 of the Jury would be chosen by artists that had won a medal (R3,p56)
1865

Corot and Daubigny were in the jury and resisted the rejection of Renoir (R59,p177)
Cabanel, Corot, Gérome, Français, Gleyre were in the jury (R22,p58)

1866

Gleyre was vice-president of a Jury of 24 persons (R22,p61)

1867
  • Gleyre was member of the Jury (R22,p63). Rousseau was president of the jury and won grand medals (R59, p183). Corot received a first class medal. (R59, 184)
  • 1867/05/03 opening Exposition Universelle: most Barbizon painters were accepted, but none of the Impressionists (R5,p43; R59,p183)
1868

Daubigny was in the jury. Monet, Bazille, Degas, Renoir, Morisot and Sisley were all admitted. (R59,p177) Millet received the Legion d’Honneur (R59,p184)

1869:
  • Februar: The government decides that artists who ever have exhibited at the Salon have the right to choose 2/3 of the Jury-members of the Salon (R5,p54; R3,p56)
  • In the Jury of the Salon are: Gérome (chairman), Gleyre, Daubigny (R22,p77)
1870
  • 1870/03/20 a group of avant garde artists suggest Manet and Millet as Jury-members, but they are not chosen.
  • Corot and Daubigny resigned from the jury after a work of Monet was rejected. Chintreuil also was in the jury.
1871:

Because of the war there was no Salon

1872:
  • The Jury should be chosen again only by artists who had won a medal (R3,p112), so leaving behind the rule of 1869 and reinforcing the rule of 1863
1873:
  • There was a Salon des Réfusés
1874:
  • 3657 works were exhibited at the Salon (R3,p58)
  • great succes by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904); Goupil sold his painting for 45.000 franc (R3,p140)
1875:
  • 51.509 catalogue were sold (R3,p58)
1876:
  • 2500 paintings were exhibited at the Salon (R3,p58)
1877:

 

1878:

 

1879:

 

1880:
  • 2586 artists show 3957 paintings and 2000 drawings (R3,p58)
  • Bouguereau was chairman of the Jury (R3,p230)
1881
  • 1881/03 The administration of the Salon is giving to a groupe of artists called the Société des Artistes Français. The new rule is that every artist, who is once accepted, has the right to vote for the Jury. (R5,p123; R3,p58)
  • 1881/05/01 Manet receives a second class medal (R5,p123)
  • 1881, End: Proust, a friend of Manet, had become minister of Art (R3,p229)
  • 1881/12/30 Manet appointed to Cheval Legion d’Honneur (R5,p124; R3,p235)
1885
  • of the 38.515 submitted works 1218 are accepted (R5,p143)
  • the Salon is visited by 238.000 people (R5,p143)
1886
  • 1886/05 Salon des Réfusés (R2,p426)