Post-impressionism as a term was introduced by Roger Fry arranging an exhibition in London of modern French art in 1910 called ‘Manet and Post-Impressionists’. The main represents were Gauguin, Cézanne and Van Gogh. Others were Seurat, Sérusier, Denis, Vallotton, Redon and also Derain, Matisse, Picasso, Rouault and De Vlaminck. (R55,p9;iR22). So it did not represent one cohesive art-movement. Later on post-impressionism depicts (French) art from the late 1880s until 1905 when Fauvism and Cubism emerged, with Van Gogh, Seurat, Gauguin and Cézanne as the most important representatives (R55,p11). So, some include the Néo-Impressionism / Pointillism / Divisionism of Seurat, Signac and others as part of Post-Impressionism. And indeed it comes after Impressionism, but still I like to discern it as a clear, separate movement.
Paul Cézanne is seen as one of the most important predecessors of modern art. In his work he first flattened the perspective and later used in one painting different perspective views (R181II,p438;R299,p20). Cézanne reduced his motifs to geometric forms such as cube, cone and cylinder (R299,p23). He also thickened his line and distorted volumes (R181II,p459). Cézanne is seen as the forefather of Cubism, but also Symbolists and Matisse were much inspired by him.
Paul Gauguin is seen is the leader and the inspirator of the Pont-Aven school. But Dujardin in a review only mentions Louis Anquetin as the representative of Cloisonism. Many state that Gauguin in the summer of 1888 developed this into Synthetism, but others emphasize the influence of Émile Bernard on this. Some interchanges the terms Synthetism and Symbolism, others see Symbolism as a broader art-mouvement. For the art-groupe Les Nabis Gauguin was a great inspirator.
For more info on these art-movements and the related artists see the link to the seperate pages. See also the links to their exhibitions at Volpini in 1889, the Expositions Impressionnistes et Symbolistes from 1891-98, the Salon de la Rose+Croix from 1892-97.
Vincent van Gogh:
Vincent van Gogh arrived in 1886 in Paris. Before that used dark colours (many browns and blacks) and broad, vived, pasty brushstrokes. In Paris under influence of Guillaumin and Signac he lightend up his colouring. In 1888 Van Gogh had an intense contact with Paul Gauguin. Through the years he evolved his own caracteristic painting style with bright colours and ‘vibrant, swirling brushstrokes’ (iR22). He namely would influence the expressionist art-mouvements, like Les Fauves, Die Brücke and Der Blauwe Reiter.
In the future I want to dedicate an entire page to him.
Sources: Tilborgh (1988=R62); Walther (2001=R70); Leeman & Sillevis (2005=R219); Bleijenberg (1990=R281), Hardy (1988=R288).
House (1879=R55), Barras Hill (1980=R96); Regenmortel (2003=R280); Leinz (1987=R299,p13-25); Walther (R3,p689), On the internet: WGI (iR22);
Citation: Please do not quote from this webpage, which is under construction. The information is incomplete and maybe partly incorrect.