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In 1863 Castagnary was the first to use the term ‘Naturalism’. Zola would pick it up in 1865 (R3,p68). The terms Realism and Naturalism are used in an interchanging way (R3,p214;R170,p345;R172,p65). Others differ that in Naturalism there is an emphasis on a very detailed rendering of the observed reality (R170,p394). Others see the en-plein-air painting and the ‘paysage intime’ of the Barbizon painters as the first form of Naturalism (R172,p64). In Naturalism is a tendency toward the idyllic (R172,p66). It has no political message (R13,p598). In Naturalism the technique is used to render an illusory perfection (R13,p598).
Bastien-Lepage, Jules (1848-84):
Naturalist; influenced by Courbet and Millet. Famous for his peasant scenes; his many portraits are painted quite expressive; his colours are consistently subdued; his brushstroke smooth, rendering selective details (R13, p30; R3,p214). 1867: study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts at Cabanel. Prix de Rome 1875: second place; Salon 1878: succes (R3,p646). More info; pictures.
Breton, Jules (1827-1906):