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Impressionism: an art-movement
Who? Where? When?
When we see Impressionism as an art-movement mutual contacts are an indication of who was part of this movement and who wasn’t. At another page we will see that the ‘impressionist’ consisted of several circles of friends. At another page you will find a chronology of when and where the Impressionists die meet and paint together. On this page you will find the most important meeting places. Besides these meeting places they met at each others houses and studios.
The Académie Suisse was an art-workshop. (Note: for the sources see the link.) Pissarro attended the Académie Suisse from 1857 till 1861. Several painters that later were part of the ‘School of Pontoise‘ also attended: Cézanne (periods in 1861 and 1862), Guillaumin (somewhere between 1860 and 1864), Piette (probably in 1860). Monet attended the Académie Suisse from about 1860/02/20 and he stopped before 1861/03/02. Sure is that he didn’t meet Cézanne here.
The Atelier Gleyre was an art-workshop. (Note: for the sources see the link.) From Autumn 1862 till the Summer of 1864 Monet, Renoir, Sisley and also Frédéric Bazille joined the Atelier Gleyre and they became an important circle of friends within the ‘impressionist’ art-movement. Bazille would die 1870/11/28 in the Franco-Prussian war. Renoir already had started the Atelier in November 1861. At first he was probably more related to Émile Laporte. Lepic joined Atelier Gleyre in March 1862 and would later join the first two ‘impressionist’ expositions. It is interesting to know how he was related to the others.
The Café Guerbois could be found at 11, Grande rue des Batignolles; now: 19, Avenue de Clichy, Paris (R3,p78). In 1866 Manet started visiting the café; shortly afterwards it became on important meeting point for impressionist and related painters. (R3,p651; R5,p46/7;R47,p33;R11,p214/5). But also for writers / art-critics as Alexis (Paul), Baudelaire, Burty, Cladel (Léon), Daudet (Alphonse), Duranty, Duret, Henri d’Ideville, Maître (Edmond; also a musician), Mallarmé, Silvestre, Zola; and also for musicians like Cabaner, Sivry; and also for others like Nadar (photographer), dr. Gachet, commandant Lejosne. Manet became the centre of a group of admirers and friends (R1,p197). They mainly came together on Friday evenings (R312,p22). Zola wrote about this café in his novelle ‘l’oeuvre’ (1886) and Armand Silvestre did the same in ‘Au pays des souvenirs’ (1892). The meetings in this café Guerbois can be seen as the birthing ground of Impressionism. In the early days the Impressionists were called ‘L’Ecole des Batignolles‘ (R1,p236;R5,p46). There was a ‘perpetual clash of opinions’ which the artists to form there own ideas. (R1,p197). Many of them lived near by: Manet (34, Boulevard des Batignolles; 1864-67; studio at Rue Guyot), Bazille and Renoir, Caillebotte, Cézanne, Fatin-Latour, Pissarro and also Daudet, Mallarmé) (R5,p46). Manet made a drawing of Café Guerbois in 1869 (R1,p202;R5,p46).
Which painters did attend these meetings, when and how frequently? We will render this alphabetically. Note: sources give different suggestions. My main sources are Rewald (R1,p197-202), Denvir (R5,p46/7), Monneret (R88I,p314/5).
- Angrand: occasionally (R207,p38)
- Astruc: daily (R1,p197); 1869-70: Astruc lived at 91, Rue Lemercier, Paris (Batignolles) (iR1), which is an 8 minutes walk (iR9)
- Bazille: daily (R1,p197); lives from early 1868 to spring 1870 at 9, Rue de la Condamine (R31,p296), a 6 minutes walk (iR9).
- Béliard: (R21,p277;R3,p647;R88I,p315); 1868, Spring: his address is: rue du Faubourg-Poissonnière, 57, Paris (iR1), which is 31 minutes walk (iR9).
- Bellot: an etcher (R88I,p315)
- Bracquemond (Félix): daily (R1,p197); he never lived close by (iR1;iR9)
- Cézanne: dropped in when he was in Paris (R1,p197), but not frequently (R1,p200);
- Degas: frequently (R1,p197); since 1866 (R26,p12;R47,p33); 1865-70: lives at 13, Rue de Laval, Paris (iR1), now 13, Rue Victor Massé (iR218), which is a 16 minutes walk.
- Desboutin: since 1872 (R88I,p315); Desboutin lived a 5 minutes walk away at 10, Rue Darcet in 1873 and 32, Rue de Dames in 1874+75 (iR1;iR9); .
- Fatin-Latour: frequently (R1,p197)
- Guigou (Paul): (R1,p204); when he was in Paris (R88I,p315)
- Guillaumin: (R88I,p315)
- Guillemet: daily (R1,p197)
- Henner (Jean-Jacques): a german painter (R88I,p315)
- Monet: 1868/11 invited by Manet (R5,p50;R1,p236); dropped in when he was in Paris (R1,p197); In August 1867 their son Jean is born at 8, Impasse Saint-Louis, Batignolles, Paris (iR3), where he also lived Spring 1868 (iR1); the contemporary address is unknown (iR9).
- Giuseppe de Nittis: since 1868 (R88I,p315); in 1869+70 he lived at Bougival (iR1), which is 16km to the south-west (iR9)
- Pissarro: dropped in when he was in Paris (R1,p197) and when he could afford a glass of wine (R312,p22); from October 1868 till Spring 1869 he lived at 23, Rue Chappe (R116II,p54), which is a 18 minutes walk (iR9).
- Renoir: since 1869; invited by Monet↑ (R1,p236;R5,p50); frequently (R1,p197); lived with Bazille↑.
- Scholderer (Otto): a german painter (R88I,p315)
- Seurat: occasionally (R207,p38)
- Séon: occasionally (R207,p38)
- Signac: occasionally (R207,p38)
- Sisley: since 1869; invited by Monet (R1,p236;R5,p50); dropped in when he was in Paris (R1,p197); came less frequently than the others (R1,p204); did not join the gatherings (R166,p262); Spring 1866 his address was 15, Rue de Moncey (iR1), a 10 minutes walk (iR9); 1867/06/17 and 1869/01/29 and Spring 1870 he lived at 27, Cité des Fleurs (R166,p261/2;iR1), a 14 minutes walk (iR9); Spring 1868 he noted as his address the same one as Bazille↑.
- Stevens: on occasion (R1,p197);
Café Nouvelle Athènes:
Located at Place Pigalle, Montmartre (R3, p651;R5,p47). Before 1870 Courbet , art-critics like Castagnary and Daudet and politicians like Clemenceau and Gambetta and Nadar (photographer) already came here (R3,p651). Café Nouvelle Athènes took over the role of Café Guerbois↑ as important meeting place for the ‘impressionists’, but the sources are not clear when. In 1870 (R3,p651); by and by after the war (in 1871; R88I,p627); shortly after the first ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1874 (R3,p651; R31,p298), around 1875 (R88I,p315) or around 1877 (R5,p47;R11,p215).
It became a meeting place for…: (R3,p651+679;R88I,p627/8;R5,p47; R31,p298;R11,p214/5;R207,p39)
- the ‘impressionists’: Caillebotte, Cézanne (sometimes), Cordey, Degas, Desboutin, Forain, Franc-Lamy, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Maureau, Monet (sometimes), Pissarro (frequently), Raffaëlli, Renoir, Seurat, Signac and Zandomeneghi.
- and other related painters: Fantin-Latour, Goeneutte, Guérard (Henri), Hay (Michel Eudes de l’), Jeanniot (pierre-Georges), Lafond (Paul Jean Marie), Manet, Stevens; néo-impressionists like: Dubois-Pillet, .
- and writers / art-critics: Alexis, Burty, Castagnary, Duranty, Duret, Mallermé, Martelli, Moore (George), Renan (Ernest), Rivière, Silvestre, (Paul) Verlaine, Villiers de l’Isle Adam, Zola,
- and others: Cabaner (musician), Chabrier (musician), Charles Cros, dr. Gachet, Michel Manzi (etcher/art-dealer), Jules de Marthold, Richepin, Victorine Meurent (Manet’s model).
Desboutin and Renoir (Rue Saint-George) had their studios close-by (R88I,p315+627). Close-by lived: Degas (Rue de Laval, now: Rue Victor-Massé), Barbizon painters like Diaz, Daubigny and para-impressionists like Damier, Stevens, Feyen-Perrin (R88I,p627). During the mid-1880s the meetings in Nouvelle Athènes faded out (R5,p47).
Renoir’s studio rue Saint-George:
In 1877 at Renoir’s studio in rue Saint-Georges, Forain, Félix Bochor, Norbert Guenette, Paul Arène, Théodore Duret and often Victor Chocquet would meet after lunch to discuss ideas about art. (R43,p19/ Georges Rivière: Renoir et ses amis; Paris, 1921; p64).
Charpentier was a publisher, also of La Vie Moderne where also exhibitions were held, and art-collector. His wife Marguerite Lemonnier plays an important role in cultural Paris their house is a meeting point of naturalist writers, impressionist painters en socialist politicians (R3,p654)
Meunier or Murer was an art-collector. 1877 onwards on Wednesday’s dinners were held in his restaurant located 95, Boulevard Voltaire, Paris. Murer was a youth friend of Guillaumin, who invited Renoir, Monet, Sisley, Pissarro, and also writers and journalists (R5,p47; R31,p299); Cordey and Franc-Lamy later joined these dinners, which were also frequented by Cézanne and also Guérard (Eva Gonzalès‘ husband), the etcher Bresdin (Redon’s master), Cabaner (a musician), Champleury, Hoschedé and Père Tanguy (R1,p414).
Le Chat Noir:
Le Chat Noir was founded in 1881 and first was located at 84, Boulevard de Rochechouart. Since 1885/06 it was located at 12, Rue de Laval (renamed as Rue Victor Massé). There also was a magazin called Le Chat Noir. Since 1886 shadow plays by Henri Rivière were performed. This location was visited by Signac (since 1882), Seurat, Degas and Puvis de Chavannes. (R207,p40)
Located at 5, avenue des Médicis , close to the Jardin du Luxembourg on the left bank of the Seine, Brasserie Gambrinus was from 1884-86 a meeting place for néo-Impressionists like Dubois-Pillet, Seurat, Signac, and art-critics like Jules Christophe, Félix Fénéon, Gustave Kahn and also for Jean Moréas (R207,p38).
The Café Riche was located at the Boulevard des Italiens, Paris (R5,p47). It was the traditional setting for the impressionist ‘Thursdays’. 1892/05/06 Renoir organised a dinner here, which was attended by de Bellio, Caillebotte, Duret, Mallarmé, Monet (R31,p305)
Soirées at the studio of Paul Signac:
Since 1884 Paul Signac held soirées at his studio at 20, avenue de Clichy. These soirées were visited by Seurat, Néo-Impressionists like Angrand, art-critics like Paul Adam and Paul Alexis and also by Henri de Régnier. (R207,p41)
Soirées at the house of Berthe Morisot and Eugène Manet:
In 1874 Berthe Morisot married Eugène Manet (the brother of Edouard Manet). December 1885 Morisot started to hold soirées for befriended artists (R5,p144; R31,p302). These soirées were attended by Renoir (R31), and art-critics like Mallarmé (R5,p144).
Déjeuners at the house of Félix and Marie Bracquemond:
On Sundays friends from Paris gathered at the Villa Brancas of Félix and Marie Bracquemond in Sèvres. These ‘déjeuners’ probably were lunches, anyway they also took place in the afternoons. According to Gustave Geffroy Félix loved disputes and wanted to be right. Marie would quiet her husband’s agitation with a simple word full of charm. Persons who attended these ‘déjeuners’ (regularly) were Philippe Burty, Alphonse Royer, E. Courbet, Ernest d’Hervilly and somtimes Edmond de Goncourt, Degas, Manet, Fatin-Latour. Probably also Rodin, Carrière, Chaplet, Maurice Hamel and Clemenceau attended. (aR9,p25;aR11,p6)
La Revue Indépendante:
At the editorial offices of this magazine around 1886 located at 11, Rue de la Chaussée d’Antin several people did meet, like Pissarro, Seurat and Néo-Impressionists like Angrand and Luce, and art-critics like Gustave Kahn and colour theoretician Charles Henry. (R207,p41).
Taverne de l’Opéra:
Also (or later) called Brasserie Vetzel and located at 1, rue Auber, close to the Palais Garnier. In a letter to Signac (1886/06) Seurat wrote that Guillaumin and Fénénon had a clash here in his presence. (R207,p39).
The Théâtre Libre was located at 37, passage de l’Elysée des Beaux-Arts (now: Rue André Antoine). This progressive theatre opened 1887/03/30 and performed naturalistic plays. Since 1889/10 Seurat lived next door. Signac designed a litho for a program book↓. Works of Seurat and Signac were exhibited in the foyer. The office and rehearsal room was located at 96, Rue Blanche. Vincent van Gogh had organised an exhibition here from 1887/11 till 1888/01, where Seurat and Signac also exhibited. (R207,p40)
As main sources I used Rewald (R1), the Lexicon of Walther (R3,p642-705), Monneret (R88), Denvir (R5), Berger (R207). Additional sources / general references (=R) you’ll find in the references, references to internet pages (=iR) you’ll find here.
Recommanded citation: “Impressionism, an Art-Movement: Meeting places. Who? Where? When? Last modified 2023/08/01. https://www.impressionism.nl/meeting-places/”
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