L’Institut

 

Note: this page is under construction. 
Do not cite from this page for the information is incomplete and maybe incorrect.

 

Meta Impressionism / École des Beaux-Arts

L’Institut

and it’s members

 

Introduction:
For several ‘impressionists’ L’Institut (or also mentioned L’Académie) was the symbol of conservative policies and teachings of art. The members of ‘L’Institut’ were often teachers at the École des Beaux-Arts and were also called ‘Académiciens’. They also had influence on the Jury of the Salon.

L’Institut = L’Académie:
The École des Beaux-Arts became around 1816 part of  ‘L’Institut de France’, in short L’Institut. L’Institut consisted of 5 academies, including the Académie des Beaux-Arts (R3,p670). The Académie des Beaux-Arts again consisted of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture, the Académie de musique (since 1669) and the Académie d’architecture (since 1671) (iR3;R3,p670). The Académie des Beaux-Arts provided education of free artists, that no longer were attached to guilds (R3,p660). L’Institut is also indicated as ‘L’Académie’ and many sources don’t clearly discern with the Académie des Beaux-Arts.
Sources mention that the Institut de France was founded in 1795 (iR5).
The Institut de France is located in the building with the Dome (iR3), compare the picture of Renoir↓ and Raffaëlli↓ .
Since 1863/11/13, by imperial decree, the Académie (the Institut de France) lost control of the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie de France in Rome. The government now appointed the employee’s. (R59,p183;R60,p97;R5,p26;R3,p660). Still, the teachers from the École were mostly members of the Académie (R3,p660). Already in 1830 the Académie had lost privileges, but received them again in 1853 (R59,p182).
The École as part of the Institute de France was since 1816 situated in a a complex of buildings at the 14, Rue Bonaparte in Paris (iR3). The central building is called the Palais des Études in which Paul Delaroche made a mural of 27 meters↑ (iR3).

 

Teachers / professors / Members of the ‘Institut’ / ‘Académiciens’:
The members of ‘L’Institut’ were often teachers at the École des Beaux-Arts and also called ‘Académiciens’ (R259). In 1875 there were 40 painters member of L’Institut (R88II,p397). Another source mentions there were only 14 painters who had administrative power over the Academy des Beaux Arts and thereby the Ecole des Beaux Arts (iR3). Often they were also member of Juries for the Salon and the Exposition Universelle. They had a large influence on the art-world. Who were those members and professors?
Note 1: I understand they were member for a longer period, but I only render the years that I am sure of.
Note 2: It is interesting to examen their painting style. Were they all Neo-Classicists? If not, how does ‘Académism’ differ from it?

Early members (before 1855):
Here you will find some painters that became member of L’Institut before 1855.

Cogniet,
was a professor in 1863 (R31,p179); in 1870 he was a ‘Académicien’ since 1849 (R259);

Coudier;
in 1870 he was a ‘Académicien’ since 1839 (R259);

Flandrin, Hippolyte (1809-64):
Flandrin was merely a Neo-Classicist. Also used drama and clair-obscure effects, which indicates a Romantic influence. He was elected as member in 1853 and in 1863 still was professor at the École des Beaux-Arts.
He was born in Lyon. He was the younger brother of Auguste (1894-42) and the older brother of Paul (1811-1902). Pupil of Ingres. Won the Prix de Rome in 1832 (with Recognition of Theseus by his father). Studied 5 years in Rome. Received at the Exposition Universelle of 1855 a 1st class medal (this work has been detroyed). Received public commissions, namely for churches. He also was a portraitist.
Sources and additional info + pictures: R9,p294; R31,p179; R337; iR3; iR6; iR23.

Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique (1780-1867):
Ingres was merely a Neo-Classicist. In 1825 Ingres became a member of the Academy (l’Institut) and in 1829 professor at the École National des Beaux-Arts. From 1835 till 1841 he was director of the French Academy in Rome. In 1853 he became president of the École. In 1863 he still was professor at the École.

Robert-Fleury (1897-1890):
He was a member since 1850 and still in 1889. In 1855 he was appointed professor at the École des Beaux-Arts, in 1863 director and in 1864 (or 1865) director of the French Academy in Rome.
Born in Cologne as Joseph-Nicolas-Robert Fleury. Debut at the Salon in 1824. He depicted several historical paintings, portraits and nudes.
Sources and additional info + pictures: R9,p627/8; R337; iR3; iR6; iR23.

 

Members appointed between 1855 and 1889:
Here you will find most of the painters that became member of L’Institut between 1855 and 1889.

Blanc (Joseph Paul) (1846-1904):
Since 1889 professor at the École des Beaux-Arts. Was a highly award artist. Born in Montmartre (Paris). Received the Prix de Rome in 1867 with Le meurtre de Laïus par Oedipe (The murder of Laius by Oedipus; mythological scene). Pupil of Cabanel. Received at the Salon a medal in 1870 and a 1st class medal in 1872. Received at the Exposition Universelle of 1878 a 2nd class medal and in 1889 a golden medal. Was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur as Chevalier in 1878. Was member of the Société des Artistes Français. Depicted Néo-Classical themes, portraits and received commissions for public buildings.
Sources and additional info + pictures: (iR23; iR3; iR4; iR6).

Bonnat, Léon (1833-1922):
He was member of l’Institute since 1881. Before 1882 he had a private art workshop together with Puvis de Chavannes. Since 1882 professor at the École des Beaux-Arts; became director in 1905. Among his students were: Caillebotte and also Jean Béraud, Georges Bracque, Raoul Dufy, Edvard Munch, John Singer Sargent and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec.
Born in Bayonne, where he later build the Musée Bonnat. Pupil of Delaroche and Cogniet. Lifelong friendship with Antonin Personnaz. Friendships with Degas, Moreau, Henner and Gérôme. Also connections with Puvis de Chavannes and Manet. Respected by ‘impressionists’ and academic painters.
He was most highly awarded. Received at the Salon a 2nd class medal in 1861 + 1863 (rappèl). Won a medal of honour in 1869. At the Exposition Universelle he received in 1867 a 2nd class medal; in 1889 he exhibited Hors Concours. Appointed in the Légion d’Honneur in 1867 as Chevalier, in 1874 as Officier, in 1882 as Commandeur and later even as Grand Officier. Made portraits, religious paintings, genre paintings, landscapes and some oriental scenes.
Sources+ more info and pictures: R9,p105/6; R231/iR40; R337. WikiPedia (iR3); iR6; iR7; iR10;

Bouguereau (William-Adolphe; 1825-1905):
Bouguereau was mainly a Neo-Classicist: He was member of the Académie since 1876 and still was in 1889. Since 1875 he was a professor at the Academie Julian. Received the Prix de Rome in 1850 and was most highly awarded.

Breton, Jules (1827-1906):
Jules Breton was mainly a Naturalist. Member since 1886. He was most highly awarded.

Cabanel (Alexandre; 1823-89):
Cabanel was mainly a Neo-Classicist: In 1863 he became  member of the Académie / the Institut. From 1864 till 1889 he was professor at the École des Beaux-Arts. Received the Prix de Rome in 1845 and was most highly awarded.

Cabat, Nicolas-Louis (1812-1893):
Cabat was mainly a Barbizon painter. He was a ‘Académicien’ since 1867 till at least 1889. In 1867 he also became professor at the Académie des Beaux-Arts. From 1878 till 1885 he was director of the Académie de France in Rome.

Delaborde, Vicomte Henri:
Became a member of L’Institut in 1868. Born in Rennes. He was highly awarded. Received at the Salon a 2nd class medal in 1837 and a 1st class in 1847. Was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur in 1860 as Chevallier and in 1870 as Officier.

Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863):
Delacroix was mainly a Romantic painter. He was elected at the Académie des Beaux-Arts 1857/01/10  (R88II,p1003).

Delaunay, Jules-Élie:
Was a member since 1879 and still was in 1889. He was most highly awarded.
Born in Nantes. Received the Prix de Rome in 1856. Received at the Salon a 3rd class medal in 1859, a 2nd class medal in 1863 and a medal in 1865. Received at the Exposition Universelle of 1867 a 2nd class medal, in 1878 a 1st class medal and in 1889 a Grand Prix. Was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur in 1860 as Chevallier and in 1870 as Officier.
(R337; R231/iR40)

Gérôme, Jean-Léon (1824-1904):
Gérome was mainly a Neo-Classicist; In 1865 he was appointed as a member  and still was in 1889. He also teached at the École des Beaux-Arts (since 1863 or 67) and would do so for years. In 1867 he was appointed as one of the 3 professors. He was most highly awarded.

Gruyer;
was member in 1889; (R231/iR40)

Hébert;
was member in 1889; (R231/iR40)

Henner;
was member in 1889; (R231/iR40)

Hesse;
was a ‘Académicien’ / member of L’Institut since 1867 and still in 1874 (R259;R337);

Lehmann:
member since 1864 (R337)

Lenepveu (Jules-Eugène);
was a ‘Académicien’ / member of L’Institut since 1869 (R259;R337); was still a member in 1889; (R231/iR40); born in Angers. Received the Prix de Rome in 1847. Received at the Salon a 3rd class medal in 1847, a 2nd class medal in 1855 + 1861. He was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur in 1862 as Chevalier.

Mantz, Paul (1821-95):
Art-historian and art-critic. 1882: director of the Academie des Beaux-Arts. Admired Monet and Morisot.  (R90I,p481)

Meissonier, Jean-Louis-Ernest (1815-91):
Meissonier was a ‘Académicien’ since 1861 (R259). He was a most highly awarded artist.
Born in Lyon. Debut at the Salon in 1834. Received at the Salon a 3rd class medal in 1840, a 2nd class medal in 1841, a 1st class medal in 1848. At the Exposition Universelle in 1855 he received a Grande Médaille d’Honneur and in 1867 a Médaille d’Honneur. He was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur in 1846 as Chevalier and in 1856 as Officier and in 1867 as Commandeur. Member of L’Institut since 1861. Co-founder of the Société National des Beaux-Arts. He depicted (historical) military scenes, historical scenes (time of Louis XIII and 18th century), portraits, people playing games, other genre pieces. He painted at smaller canvasses.
Sources and more info and pictures: R337; R9,p522/3; iR6; iR23.

Moreau, Gustave (1826-98):
Moreau was member in 1889 (R231/iR40). Since 1892 he had been professor at the École des Beaux-Arts (R298,p136).
Gustave Moreau was an important forerunner of Symbolism. He exhibited at the Exposition Universelle in 1867 with two paintings he had earlier exhibited at the Salon. In 1900 at the Centennale were 5 paintings posthumous exhibited (R231). In 1906 there was a large (posthumous) exhibition showing 209 works at the Georges Petit gallery (catalogue at gallica.bnf.fr/bd6t53713854=iR40).
More info and paintings on WikiPedia (iR3) and WikiMedia (iR6).

Müller, Charles-Louis:
Member of L’Institut since 1864 till at least 1889. Born in Paris. He was a highly awarded artist. Received at the Salon a 3rd class medal in 1838, a 2nd class medal in 1846, a 1st class medal in 1848. At the Exposition Universelle in 1855 he received a 1st class medal. He was appointed in the Légion d’Honneur in 1849 as Chevalier and in 1859 as Officier. (R231/iR40; R337; R259)

Pils, Isidore (1813-1875):
Pils was mainly a Néo-Classicist. In 1863 he was for a short time professor at the École des Beaux-Arts. In 1868 he was appointed at the Académie des Beaux-Arts. Received the Prix de Rome in 1838 and was most highly awarded.

Signol;
was a ‘Académicien’ since 1860 till at least 1889; (R231/iR40;R259;R337); was a professor at the École des Beaux-Arts in 1863 (R31,p179)

 

Members appointed after 1889:
Here you will find some painters that became member of L’Institut after 1889.

Besnard, Paul-Albert (1849-1934):
Besnard was a Para-Impressionist. Since 1912/13 member of L’Institut. Director of the École des Beaux-Arts , since 1913 in Rome and since 1922 in Paris.

Carolus-Duran (1837-1917):
Carolus-Duran was a Para-Impressionist. Was a member since 1904 and director of the Académie in Rome from 1905-13 (iR3).

Forain:
In 1923 Forain, who did partake in 4 of the 8 ‘impressionist’ expositions, was elected as member of the Academy of Fine Arts (l’Institut) (R43,p56;R88;R9;aR21,p13)

Other members:

Baudry; (R337)

Lafenestre, George (1837-1916):
member; also an art-critic (R90I,p480)

Merson, Olivier (1846-92+);
also an art-critic (R90I,p481)

Michel, André (1853-1925);
also an art-critic (R90I,p481)

Nieuwerkerke, Émilien de:
came from Holland; made in 1843 a statue of Willem de Zwijger (R177,p16+17); director of the National Museums of France (Directeur des Musées impériaux); was opposed to Realists and Barbizon painters; became chairman of the Jury; appointed conservative members of the Jury of the Salon; made the Salon to a bastion of conservatism; he implied restrictive measures (R177,p23+31;R223,p165)

 

General sources:
My main sources are Walther (2013=R3), Denvir (R5), Raeburn (1985=R31), Wildenstein (1996=R22I), Adams (1994=R59), Monneret (1978-81=R88), Pissarro & Durand-Ruel (2005=R116I), the Exposition Universelles catalogues (R231), the Salon database (iR1), WikiPedia (iR3-5), Joconde (iR23). See the link for other general References (=Rx) and to the internet references (=iRx). See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.

For further reading:
x

Additional sources (=aRx):

  1. WikiPedia//École des Beaux-Arts (page on WikiPedia = iR3)
  2. jssgallery.org//École des Beaux-Arts (page on jss gallery =iR359)
  3. x

 

 

Recommanded citation: “Meta-Impressionism / École des Beaux-Arts: L’Institut and it’s members. Last modified 2023/11/04. https://www.impressionism.nl/linstitut/