Note: this page is under construction. 
Do not site from this page for the information is incomplete and maybe incorrect.



Meta Impressionism

École des Beaux-Arts



For the impressionists L’Institut (or also mentioned L’Académie) was the symbol of conservative policies and teachings of art. The members of ‘L’Institut’ were often teachers at the École des Beaux-Arts and were also called ‘Académiciens’. They also had influence on the Jury of the Salon.

L’Institut = L’Académie:
The École des Beaux-Arts became around 1816 part of  ‘L’Institut de France’, in short L’Institut. L’Institut consisted of 5 academies, including the Académie des Beaux-Arts (R3,p670). The Académie des Beaux-Arts again consisted of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture, the Académie de musique (since 1669) and the Académie d’architecture (since 1671) (iR3;R3,p670). The Académie des Beaux-Arts provided education of free artists, that no longer were attached to guilds (R3,p660). L’Institut is also indicated as ‘L’Académie’ and many sources don’t clearly discern with the Académie des Beaux-Arts.
Sources mention that the Institut de France was founded in 1795 (iR5).
The Institut de France is located in the building with the Dome (iR3), compare the picture of Renoir↓ and Raffaëlli↓ .
Since 1863/11/13, by imperial decree, the Académie (the Institut de France) lost control of the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie de France in Rome. The government now appointed the employee’s. (R59,p183;R60,p97;R5,p26;R3,p660). Still, the teachers from the École were mostly members of the Académie (R3,p660). Already in 1830 the Académie had lost privileges, but received them again in 1853 (R59,p182).
The École as part of the Institute de France was since 1816 situated in a a complex of buildings at the 14, Rue Bonaparte in Paris (iR3). The central building is called the Palais des Études in which Paul Delaroche made a mural of 27 meters↑ (iR3).


Teachers / professors / Members of the ‘Institut’ / ‘Académiciens’:
The members of ‘L’Institut’ were often teachers at the École des Beaux-Arts and also called ‘Académiciens’ (R259). In 1875 there were 40 painters member of L’Institut (R88II,p397). Another source mentions there were only 14 painters who had administrative power over the Academy des Beaux Arts and thereby the Ecole des Beaux Arts (iR3). Often they were also member of Juries for the Salon and the Exposition Universelle. They had a large influence on the art-world. Who were those members and professors?
Note 1: I understand they were member for a longer period, but I only render the years that I am sure of.
Note 2: It is interesting to examen their painting style. Were they all Neo-Classicists? If not, how does ‘Académism’ differ from it?

Bonnat, Léon; was member in 1889;  (R231/iR40)
Bouguereau, Neo-Classicist: He was member of the Académie since 1876 and still was in 1889.
Breton, Jules; was member in 1889 (R231/iR40)
Cabanel, Neo-Classicist: In 1864 he became  member of the Académie / the Institut (which he still was in 1870;R259). From 1864 till 1889 he was professor at the École des Beaux-Arts.
Cabat, Barbizon painter; in 1870 he was a ‘Académicien’ since 1867 (R259); was member in 1889; (R231/iR40)
Carolus-Duran: was a member since 1904 and director of the Académie in Rome from 1905-13 (iR3).
Cogniet, was a professor in 1863 (R31,p179); in 1870 he was a ‘Académicien’ since 1849 (R259);
Coudier; in 1870 he was a ‘Académicien’ since 1839 (R259);
Delacroix was elected at the Académie des Beaux-Arts 1857/01/10  (R88II,p1003).
Delaunay; was member in 1889; (R231/iR40)
Flandrin was a professor in 1863 (R31,p179)
Gérome, Neo-Classicist; In 1865 he was appointed as a member  and still was in 1889. He also teached at the École des Beaux-Arts (since 1863 or 67) and would do so for years. In 1867 he was appointed as one of the 3 professors (iR3).
Gruyer; was member in 1889; (R231/iR40)
Hébert; was member in 1889; (R231/iR40)
Henner; was member in 1889; (R231/iR40)
Hesse; in 1870 he was a ‘Académicien’ since 1867 (R259);
Ingres, Neo-Classicist; In 1825 he became a member of the Academy (de l’Institut) and in 1829 professor at the École National des Beaux-Arts. From 1835 till 1841 he was director of the French Academy in Rome.
Lenepveu; in 1870 he was a ‘Académicien’ since 1869 (R259); was member in 1889; (R231/iR40)
Meissonier; in 1870 he was a ‘Académicien’ since 1861(R259);
Moreau, Gustave; was member in 1889 (R231/iR40)
Müller; in 1870 he was a ‘Académicien’ since 1864 (R259); was member in 1889; (R231/iR40)
Robert-Fleury, J.N.;  was a professor in 1863 (R31,p179); in 1870 he was a ‘Académicien’ since 1850 (R259;R88II,p389); and member in 1889 (R231/iR40)
Signol; was a professor in 1863 (R31,p179); in 1870 he was a ‘Académicien’ since 1860 (R259); and member in 1889; (R231/iR40)


General sources:
My main sources are Walther (2013=R3), Denvir (R5), Raeburn (1985=R31), Wildenstein (1996=R22I), Adams (1994=R59), Monneret (1978-81=R88), Pissarro & Durand-Ruel (2005=R116I), the Exposition Universelles catalogues (R231), the Salon database (iR1), WikiPedia (iR3-5), Joconde (iR23). See the link for other general References (=Rx) and to the internet references (=iRx). See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.

Additional sources (=aRx):

  1. WikiPedia//École des Beaux-Arts (page on WikiPedia = iR3)
  2. jssgallery.org//École des Beaux-Arts (page on jss gallery =iR359)
  3. x



Citation: Please do not quote from this webpage, which is under construction. The information is incomplete and maybe partly incorrect.