circles of friends

just started

Circles of friends

resumé

 

Introduction:

The Impressionists can be seen as circles of friends. What circles can we discern? Who were most active within these circles? Who connected these circles? On this page you’ll find a resumé. For the general references see . For the references to internet pages see.

 

Manet:

 

Degas (and Rouart):

  • Degas and Rouart were youth friends.
  • Degas introduced the most people to the ‘impressionist’ expositions. In 1874 Degas, but being his teachers maybe more Rouart (iR1), invited Brandon and Levert (R3,p401) and De Nittis (R3,p650+136,+138). In 1877 Maureau (R3,p199) and Tillot. In 1879 Marie Bracquemond, Cassatt, Forain and Zandomeneghi. In 1880 the two Raffaëlli’s, Vidal and Vignon (R2,p257+425; R5,p115).

Pissarro, Cézanne, Guillaumin and Gauguin:
And: Lucien Pissarro, Schuffenecker, Seurat, Signac and Redon

  • Pissarro, Cézanne and Guillaumin followed lessons at Academie Suisse (R3,p644)
    Monet also followed lessons from 1860 till early 1861. Together with Pissarro, but not with Cézanne who joined April 1861 (R22,p25/6).
    Béliard also followed lessons in 1860, together with Pissarro (iR4).
  • They meet and paint together in Pontoise where Pissarro lives from 1866-83 (R3,p689) They are called the school of Pontoise; Béliard and Vignon also were part of it (R17,p178/9).
  • Guillaumin and Pissarro maintained a particularly close friendship (R17,p204).
  • Pissarro invites Béliard in 1874, Piette in 1877 and Gauguin in 1879 to join the ‘impressionist’ expositions (R3,p138+199+224). In 1886 (stimulated by Guillaumin) he invited his son Lucien Pissarro, Seurat and Signac. Guillaumin himself invited Redon and Schuffenecker (who is also befriended with Gauguin) (R2,p423/5+440).
  • In 1884 Guillaumin, Redon, Schuffenecker, Seurat and Signac were co-founders of the Salon des Indépendants .

 

Monet, Renoir and Sisley (and Bazille):
And: Monet, Boudin, Cals
And: Renoir, Cordey, Franc-Lamy and Desboutin

  • They followed lessons within the atelier of Gleyre (1862-64)
  • They painted together in Fontainebleau.
  • Monet and Renoir would paint together in 1869 in La Grénouillère
  • Bazille would stay active within this circle until his death in 1870
  • They painted together in the early 1870’s in Argenteuil where also Manet and Caillebotte would join.
  • Probably it was Monet who introduced his old inspirator Boudin to the 1st ‘impressionist’ exposition in 1874.
  • It was Monet who invited Cals to the ‘impressionist’ expositions (R3,p652).
  • In 1877 Renoir would introduce Cordey and Franc Lamy to the third impressionist exposition (R3,p199). They and Goeneutte and later Desboutin formed a group that was inseparable (R82,p22-23 ;iR4). It’s remarkable that the first three painters were 13 or 14 younger than Renoir (R31,p211).  Georges Rivière (art-critic and his later biograph,R82), Lhote (a journalist), Gervex (a painter), Lestringuez (a civil servant) also were part of this group. They mingled in Renoirs studios at the Rue Saint-Georges, 35 (1873-82) and at the Rue Cortot (1875-6) and posed for him in his ‘Moulin de la Galette’ , ‘La balançoire’, ‘Under the arbor’, ‘the artists studio’ (1876) and other paintings (R4,p161-6;R31,p211+297/8;R30,p100).