Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Here you will find an account of which paintings Degas has exhibited at the ‘Impressionist’ Expositions in 1874, 1876, 1877, 1879, 1880, 1881 and 1886. As indicated earlier the indication of a painting is often uncertain. Often there are more than one options. In my choices I mainly have followed the suggestions of Moffett (1986=R2), who mostly follows the Catalogue Raisonné of Lemoisne (1946). Further on I made connections between the french titles in the catalogues and the contemporary titles of the paintings. These suggestions are very uncertain or just a suggestion to compare. (See here for the general references (=R) and here for references to internet pages (=iR).
The first ‘impressionist’ exposition 1874:
- catalogue numbers 54-63
- in total 10 works exhibited, 5x oil paintings, 4x drawing / dessin, 1x pastel
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p120)
1874-54 Examen de danse au théâtre ; appartient à M. Faure
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As an uncertain suggestion I give 1873-74, CR340, Salle de danse (ballet rehearsal on stage), 65×81, Orsay (iR2;iR59;R26,no470); a work Moffett suggests for 1876-44. Other options for a dancing exam on stage in the theater are two other works that look much alike: 1874ca, CR400, The Rehearsal of the Ballet on stage, thinned oil, 54×73, Metropolitan, (iR22;R26,no466); Moffett renders this work for the drawing exhibited under no. 60. And: 1873-74, CR498, The Rehearsal on Stage, pastel, 53×72, Metropolitan, (iR2;R26,no469); Pickvance suggests this work for 1879-hc. A more uncertain option is: 1875ca, CR365, Ballet Rehearsal, 55×68, monotype gouache pastel, NAMA Kansas city, (iR2;R26,no485). This one resembles the drawing of no.60. Compare also 1876-37 ‘examen de dance’ and 1880-40 ‘examen de dance’.
1874-55 Classe de danse ; appartient à M. Brandon
Moffett suggests CR297, now: 1870-2ca, CR297, The Dancing Class, 20×27, Metropolitan, (iR2;iR59;R26,no296;R47,p50). Compare other work with the same title: 1877-48.
1874-56 Intérieur de coulisse ; appartient à M. Rouart
Moffett mentions Degas destroyed this painting. To compare I render: 1882-5, dans les coulisses, pastel, 66×38, Axx (iR15;R26,no630). A work that was also in the Henri Rouart collection, no.17.5 in the 1912 Auction catalogue. compare also 1877-53; 1879-47 / 48; 1881-19hc.
1874-57 Blanchisseuse ; appartient à M. Brandon
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. My uncertain suggestion is 1869-73ca, CR216, La repasseuse, Woman Ironing, 93×73, NP Munich, (iR2;R26,no364;R47,p42). Degas showed several works with women ironing: 1874-57 / 61; 1876-41 / 49 / 50 / 54 / 59; 1879-64; 81-19.
1874-58 Départ de course, esquisse, dessin
Eng.: departure of the race, study, drawing. Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As an uncertain suggestion I give: 1862ca, At the Races, dr, 34×48, CAI Williamstown (iR10;R27,p26). The drawing has similarities with an oil painting I will also render to compare: 1860-2, CR76, At the Races, the Start, 32×46, HAM Cambridge (iR2;R26,no164). Other options are: 18xx, Jockey with Horse, dr, 25×29, A20180830 (iR10). To compare I like also to mention the oil paintings: 1871-73ca, CR317, Le champs de courses (Before the Race), 27×35, NGA Washington, (iR2;R26,no343). And: 1862-80, CR101, the gentlemen’s race, before the start, 48×62, Orsay (iR2;R26,no209). Degas showed in total 4 works of race horses with the Impressionists: 1874-58 / 59 / 63 and 1879-63.
1874-59 Faux départ, dessin
Eng.: False start, drawing. Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As a very uncertain suggestion I give: 18xx, Jockey on Horse, dr, 19×23, Barnes Merion (iR10;iR90). To compare I also render an oil painting: 1869-72, CR258, The False Start, 32×40, YUAG New Haven, (iR2;R26,no191). See also number 58.
1874-60 Répétition de ballet sur la scène, dessin ; appartient à M. Mulbacher
Moffett suggests CR400; see Dony nr. 466; technique: diluted oil, so not a drawing. To compare I render a monotype: 1874-6ca, The Ballet Master, chalk watercolour on monotype, 56×69, NGA Washington (iR10;iR33;iR68). This work resembles another monotype with gouache and pastel: 1875ca, CR365, Ballet Rehearsal, 55×68, monotype gouache pastel, NAMA Kansas city, (iR2;R26,no485)
1874-61 Une blanchisseuse, pastel ; appartient à M. Brandon
Moffett suggests Brame and Reff nr62, now in Musée d’Orsay. I could not Identify this work. As an uncertain suggestion I render: 1870-86ca, CR277, Woman Ironing, pastel, xx, private, (iR2;iR10;iR13;R26,no365). See more info no.57.
1874-62 après le bain, étude, dessin
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Degas has made many drawings of women leaving the bath. Most are (probably) made later. As a very uncertain option I give an undated drawing: 18xx, After The Bath, dr, xx, xx (iR10).
1874-63 Aux courses en province ; appartient à M. Faure
Moffett (R2,p127) suggests CR281; see Dony nr. 203. Now: 1869-72ca, CR281, At the Races in the Countryside, 37×56, MFA Boston, (iR2;iR59). See also no.58.
The second ‘impressionist’ exposition 1876:
- catalogue numbers 36-59
- nr 51 = various studies, so at least two works
- maybe number 52 was not exhibited
- in total Degas exhibited about 25 works, of which 23 oil paintings, 1 drawing / dessin, 1 pastel
- 2x indication of place (New-Orleans, nr. 36 + 40)
- 3x indication of time, season or weather
- 4x a study
- 1 loan (appartient à…)
- 7x portraits; 6x dance scenes (no. 37, 44, 45, 47,48, 51); 5x women ironing (no. 41, 49, 50, 54, 59)
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p161)
1876-36 Portrait dans un bureau (Nouvelle-Orléans)
Moffett (R2,p170) suggests CR320; now: 1873, CR320, le bureau de coton à la Nouvelle Orléans, 73×92, MM Pau, (iR2;R26,no356) Degas renders many black-white contrasts and a lot of detail (R47,p62). This work was bought by the museum in Pau in 1878 (R47,p66).
1876-37 Examen de danse ; Appartient à M. F…
Moffett suggests CR397; now: 1874-6ca, CR397, the dance class, 83×76, Metropolitan (iR2;R47,p64;iR26,no488).
1876-38 Portrait de Mr. E.M…
(E.M. =Eugène Manet, married with Berthe Morisot, brother of Edouard Manet). Moffett (R2,p172) suggests as options CR339 or 392. I render CR339: 1874, CR339, Eugene Manet (married with Berthe Morisot), 65×81, A19810519 (iR2;iR15;R26,no371). this work was probably made in Degas his studio.
1876-39 Portrait de femme (ébauche)
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. My uncertain suggestion is:1869, CR213, Mme Theodore Gobillard, nee Yves Morisot, 55×65, Metropolitan,(iR2;iR59;R26,no249). Note: the title doesn’t indicate the painting is a studie / sketch, but it looks that way. Compare no.42.
1876-40 Cour d’une maison (Nouvelle-Orléans, esquissé)
Moffett suggests CR309; see Dony nr. 346. Now: 1872-73, CR309, Children on a Doorstep, 60×75, OC Copenhagen, (iR2;R26,no346;R47,p60).
Moffett suggests as options CR687 or 686 or 785 or 786; see Dony nr. 596 or 595 or 624 or 625. All these works are dated later. Clayson suggests Degas reworked his laundresses later (R2,p158). I render an earlier work: 1870-2ca, CR278, Blanchisseuses souffrant des dents, Washerwomen, 16×21, MuMa (iR8;iR11;R26,no273). More info see 1874-57.
1876-42 Ebauche de portrait (pastel)
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. My uncertain suggestion is: 1869, CR214, Mme. Theodore Gobilllard, nee Yves Morisot, pastel, 48×30, Metropolitan, (iR2;R26,no250). This work was also shown at the Salon in 1870. This is the same woman as CR213, see 1876-39. Another option could be CR208 ‘Madame Camus at the piano’ (R26,no246) or CR209 ‘Madame Camus’ (R26,no247), compare 1876-43.
1876-43 Portrait, le soir
Moffett suggests CR271 (R2,p173). Now: 1869-70, CR271, Madame Camus with a Fan, 73×92, NGA Washington, (iR2;iR59;R26,no258). This work was also shown at the Salon of 1870.
1876-44 Salle de danse
1876-45 Salle de danse
Moffett suggests for 1876-44 or 45 CR340 (R2,p174); see Dony nr. 470. But this is a rehearsal on stage, so I don’t follow Moffett in this one. I do suggest CR340 for 1874-54. As first uncertain option I give CR298, see Dony nr. 292 (R47,p59); maybe this picture also is an option for 1874-54 and 1876-37. As second option to compare I give a later work: 1880-85ca, CR820, Dancers in the Classroom, 39×88, CAI Williamstown (iR2;R26,no819).
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As one of many possibilities I render: 1872, CR305, woman with a vase of flowers, (Estelle Musson, Mme Rene de Gas), 75×54, Orsay (iR2;R26,no341). My suggestion corresponds the fact Degas exhibited two other paintings he made in New Orleans (no. 36+40).
Moffett suggests for 1876-47 or 48 CR512 (R2,p149), Now: 1876-80ca, CR512, Yellow Dancers (in the Wings), 73×60, AI Chicago, (iR2;R26,no726). As a second very uncertain option I render: 1876-83, Dancers Backstage, 24×19, NGA Washington (iR2). Note: the date of many of Degas’ paintings of dancers in the wings are very uncertain. Compare also: 1874-56; 1877-52; 1881-hc1.
1876-49 Blanchisseuse (silhouette)
Moffett suggests CR356 (R2,p175); see Dony nr. 368. Now: 1873-4ca, CR356, Woman Ironing (Silhouette), 54×39, Metropolitan, (iR2;iR59;R26,no368;R47,p61). See info 1874-57.
1876-50 Blanchisseuse portant du linge
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. The work that comes most close by is: 1876-78, CR410, laundress carrying linen, thinned oil, 46×61, private (iR2;R26,no437). But note the catalogue uses the singular ‘blanchisseuse’ whereas on this picture there are two woman carrying laundry. Moffett suggests this work for 1879-64. So in stead I will render to compare another ‘blanchisseuse’ (who is not carrying linnen): 876-87, CR685, Woman Ironing, thinned oil, 81×66, (?)NGA Washington, (iR2;iR8;R27,no597).
1876-51 Divers croquis de danseuses
Eng.: Several studies of dancers. Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. The plural ‘divers’ suggests two or more studies. I render two very uncertain suggestions: 1874-75ca, CR479, Dancer (study), 41×33, Hermitage, (iR2;R26,no480); and: 1873, Seated Dancer in Profile (study), essence drawing, xx, Orsay, (iR2).
1876-52 Dans un café
Moffett mentions as previously thought to be CR393; see Dony nr. 399; Moffett suggests this picture as 1877-61+hc. Clayson suggests it was not exhibited at all, because no one makes a reference to such a work (R2,p147), which would explain why this same work was exhibited in 1877. Moffett doesn’t give another suggestion. See also R8,p22. To compare I give a work that Degas made a year later: 1877, CR417, Woman in a Café, pastel on monotype, 12×16, private NY, (iR2;R26,no431). Another option would be: 1877-80, CR467, At the Café (two women sitting at a table), 65×54, FM Cambridge, (iR2;R26,no458).
Moffett suggests ‘perhaps’ CR391. Now: 1876, CR391, the ballet ‘Robert le diable’, 75×81, VAM London (iR10;R26,no487). Compare also: 1868-69ca, CR186, the orchestra of the Opera, 57×46, Orsay (iR2;R26,no286).
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As a uncertain suggestion I give: 1873, CR329, La blanchisseuse, 22×18, private NY (iR10;iR90;iR22;R26,no367). See more info 1874-57.
1876-55 Femme se lavant le soir
Eng.: Woman washing in the evening. Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Most of the works with women washing themselves are dated later. In the pictures Dony represents I can’t find an additional title with ‘evening’. To compare I give a rather early work with a woman combing her hair, CR436 (=Dony nr. 426)
1876-56 Petites paysannes se baignant à la mer vers le soir
Moffett (R2,p177) suggests CR377; see Dony nr. 396. Now: 1875-76, CR377, Peasant Girls Bathing in the Sea at Dusk, 65×81, private, (iR2;R26,no396). Also exhibited as 1877-51.
Moffett suggests as perhaps CR371; see Dony nr. 393; now: 1875ca, CR371, Madame Jeantaud in the mirror, 74×84, Orsay (iR2;R26,no393;R47,p67;R11,p211). This picture doesn’t necessarily show a milliner, more a lady looking at herself in the mirror. But all paintings of milliners I could find are dated later. So I follow Moffett and label his suggestion as uncertain. Degas exhibited another two works of milliners in 1886, see no.14+15.
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As one of many options I render: 1875ca, CR369, madame de Rutte, 62×50, private (iR2;R26,no394).
1876-59 Blanchisseuse (dessin)
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As a very uncertain option I render: 18xx, blanchisseuse, dr, xx, xx (iR10). More info see 1876-41.
The third ‘impressionist’ exposition 1877:
- catalogue numbers 37 – 61
- 1 work was exhibited outside the catalogue (=hors catalogue = hc)
- so in total Degas exhibited 26 works
- 0x indication of place
- 3x indication of time, season or weather
- 0x a study
- 8x loans (appartient à…), M. C. (=Caillebotte; no.37+45+47); M. H.H. (no.38), M. Ch. H. (no.43); M. V. (no. 44); M. H. R… (probably Henri Rouart; no.49+50)
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p204)
1877-37 Femmes devant un café, le soir ; Appartient à M. C.
Moffett suggests CR419 (R2,p197); see Dony nr. 430. Now: 1877, CR419, Women on a Cafe Terrace in the Evening, pastel, 41×60, Orsay, (iR2;iR59;R27,p42). Note: in the catalogue it is not mentioned it was a pastel on monotype, see also no.1877-60. This work was part of the Caillebotte bequest, so C. = Caillebotte. Georges Rivière clearly describes this work (1877/04; R26,p163).
1877-38 École de danse ; Appartient à M. H.H.
Moffett suggests CR398; Now: 1873, CR398, The Dance Class, 48×63, CGA Washington, (iR2;R26,no490;R47,p63).
Moffett suggests CR513 (R2,p216); now: 1877-80ca, CR513, Ballet at the Paris Opera, pastel, 35×71, AI Chicago, (iR2;R26,no724). Note: the title doesn’t indicate it is a pastel. Compare no.57.
1877-40 Danseuse, un bouquet à la main
Moffett suggests CR418; now: 1877, CR418, Dancer With Bouquet, pastel tempera, 67×38, Orsay, (iR59;R26,no499). Note: the title doesn’t indicate it was a tempera pastel. Other options also are pastels (R26,no509 / 510 / 511 / 519).
1877-41 Danseuse à la barre
Moffett suggests CR421 or perhaps 408 (R2,p217); see Dony nr. 498 (a pastel) or 497. I render the last one, now: 1876-77, CR408, Dancers Practicing at the Barre, thinned oil, 75×80, Metropolitan, (iR2;iR59;R26,no497).
1877-42 Chanteuse de café-concert
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As a very uncertain option I render a pastel: 1875-76ca, Chanteuse de Café-Concert, pastel, 23×28, private, (iR2). Note: Degas made several works of Mll. Bécat a ‘chanteuse de café’ mostly performing at ‘les Ambassadeurs’. All these works are also an option. Degas exhibited 4 works of café-concerts with the Impressionists: 1877-42 / 43 / 44 and 1881-hc3.
1877-43 Café-concert ; Appartient à M. Ch. H.
Moffett suggests CR404 (R2,p360); see Dony nr.411. Now: 1877, CR404, The Café Concert, pastel on monotype, 24×43, CGA Washington, (iR2;R26,no411;R27,p37). Note: the catalogue doesn’t indicate this work was a pastel on monotype. Moffett also suggests this one as an option for 1881-hc3. See also no.42.
1877-44 Café-concert ; Appartient à M. V…
Moffett suggests CR405; see Dony nr. 413. 1875-77ca, CR405, Café Concert – At ´Les Ambassadeurs´, pastel on monotype, 37×26, MBA Lyon, (iR2;R26,no413;R47,p73). Note: the catalogue didn’t indicate it was a pastel on monotype. See also no.42. Georges Rivière widely and full of praise describes this work (1877/04; R26,p163).
1877-45 Femme sortant du bain ; Appartient à M. C.
Moffett suggests CR422 (R2,p195); see Dony nr. 427. Now: 1877ca, CR422, Woman Leaving Her Bath, pastel on monotype, 23×31, Orsay, (iR2;R26,no427). Note: the catalogue didn’t indicate it was a pastel on monotype.
1877-46 Femme prenant son tub le soir
Eng.: Woman taken her bath in the evening. Moffett suggests CR423; see Dony nr. 428. Now: 1876-7, CR423, Woman leaving the tube, pastel on monotype, 17×28, NSM Pasadena (iR59;R26,no428). Note: the catalogue didn’t indicate it was a pastel on monotype. Note 2: both pictures indicate a woman leaving the bath and not one taking her bath; and nothing indicates it was evening.
1877-47 Choristes ; Appartient à M. C…
Moffett suggests CR420; see Dony nr. 416. Now: 1877, CR420, The Chorus, pastel on monotype, 29×30, Orsay, (iR2;iR59;R26,no416). Note: the catalogue didn’t indicate it was a pastel on monotype. Was this work also part of the Caillebotte bequest?
1877-48 Classe de danse
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As an uncertain option I render: 1873-6ca, CR341, the ballet class, 85×75, Orsay (iR2;R26,no479;R11,p206/7). There is not a work exhibited with the same title.
1877-49 Portrait de monsieur H.R…
Moffett suggests CR373 (R2,p218); see Dony nr.392. 1875ca, CR373, Henri Rouart in front of His Factory, 65×50, CI Pittsburgh, (iR2;R26,no392;R27,p53). H. R… is probably Henri Rouart.
1877-50 Bains de mer, petite fille peignée par sa bonne ; Appartient à M. H.R…
Moffett suggests CR406; see Dony nr. 410. Now: 1870-77ca, CR406, Beach Scene, thinned oil, 46×81, NG London, (iR2;iR59;R26,no410). M. H. R… is Henri Rouart. In his posthumes auction in 1912 it had no. 15.3.
1877-51 Petites filles du pays se baignant dans la mer à la nuit tombante
Moffett suggests CR377 (R2,p176); see Dony nr. 396. Now: 1875-76, CR377, Peasant Girls Bathing in the Sea at Dusk, 65×81, private, (iR2). Also exhibited as 1876-56.
1877-52 Coulisses de théâtre
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Many of the works Degas made of dancers in the wings have a very uncertain date. I render as a very uncertain option: 1876-85ca, CR617, Dancers in Pink, 59×74, HSM Farmington (iR2;R26,no790). Compare also 1874-56; 1876-47+48; 1881-hc1. Note: Georges Rivière writes about dancers in their blue skirts (1877/04; R26,p163). But I couldn’t find a work made until 1877 that resembles this description, except maybe 1877-9, Dancers on stage, pastel + gouache, 66×36, TB Lugano (R27,p66).
Georges Rivière writes about a woman portrait that Degas made years ago (1877/04; R26,p163). Moffett suggests for 1877-53 or 54 CR163 9R2,p219), now: 1867,CR163, portrait of a young woman, 27×22, Orsay (iR6;R47,p38;R2,p219;R47,p38). As second very uncertain option I render: 1869, CR198, Emma Dobigny, 31×26, Kh Hamburg (iR2;R47,p44;R26,no254)
I only found a later work from 1892 which I give to compare. Now: 1892, CR1114, The Billiard Room at Menil-Hubert, 51×65, Sg Stuttgart (iR2;R26,no1157). A picture from a room in the castle of the Valpinçon family. This work has similarities with 1872-3, CR312, Interieur, 33×46 in the Horowitz collection in New York, maybe also made in the same castle (R26,no347). If so, maybe Degas also made an earlier version of the one made in 1892.
1877-56 Cabinet de toilette
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. This work has to indicate a little toilette room. As a very uncertain option I render a pastel: 1876-7, Woman at Her Toilette, pastel, xx, NSM Pasadena (iR2)
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As an uncertain option I render: 1873, Ballet Rehearsel, xx, FAM Cambridge, (iR6).
1877-58 Dessins faits à l’encre grasse et imprimés
1877-59 Dessins faits à l’encre grasse et imprimés
1877-60 Dessins faits à l’encre grasse et imprimés
Eng.: drawings made with greasy ink and printed. These are also called monotypes (web.archive.org), see for explanation. The website of the Metropolitan writes: ‘Degas too studied the world of the maisons closes (=prostitution houses), and made about fifty smudged drawings in greasy ink on glass or metal plates which he printed as monotypes’ (see). Provokr (iR91) and the NYtimes render articles on monotypes by Degas exhibited at the MoMa in New York in 2016. Lepic taught Degas making monotypes. It is clear that Degas also used other theme’s for his monotypes. Many of these monotypes Degas later on reworked with chalk, pastel and /or watercolour. Moffett suggests for 1877-58-60 CR547, a work I could not indicate. So I render 3 very uncertain options also to compare as some works are date later: 1877-58: 1876-7ca, the tube, monotype, 41×35, BNF Paris (iR10;iR26); 1877-59: 1879-90ca, woman by a fireplace, monotype, 28×38, NGA Washington (iR10;iR8;R27,p75); 1877-60: 1880-5ca, Woman Reading, monotype ink, 38×27, NGA Washington (iR91;iR10;iR8).
1877-61 Répétition de ballet
Moffett suggests CR400; now: 1874ca, CR400, The Rehearsal of the Ballet Onstage, 54×73, Metropolitan, (iR22;R26,no466). Note: This painting is made with tempera and takes place on stage. Both are not indicated in the title. Compare 1874-54+60 and 1879-hc.
Moffett suggests CR393; see Dony nr. 399. Now: 1876, CR393, in a café (the Absinthe drinker), 92×68, Orsay (iR2;R26,no399;R11,p210;R27,p43). The picture was made in the Café del la Nouvelle-Athènes (R47,p69). Some have identified this painting also as 1876-52. See also R8,p22).
The fourth ‘impressionist’ exposition 1879:
- catalogue numbers 57-81
- nr. 67 (perhaps) wasn’t exhibited
- probably one work was exhibited outside the catalogue (=hors catalogue=hc)
- in total Degas exhibited between 24 and 26 works; probably 10x oil paintings, 9à11x pastel, 5 fans; additional techniques: 4à5x détrempe (=tempera; soaked wet; no.58/59/65/67/75), 2x essence (=oil or terpentine; no. 63 + 64)
- 1x indication of place
- 0x indication of time, season or weather
- 2x a study
- 10x loans (appartient à…)
- 11x portraits; 6à7x dancers; 5x éventail / fan (nrs.77-81);
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p267/8)
1879-57 Portrait de M. Diego Martelli
Moffett suggests CR519 (R2,p257); see Dony nr. 566. Now: 1879, Diego Martelli, 100×110 , NGS Edinburgh, (iR2).
1879-58 Portrait de M. Duranty (détrempe)
Moffett suggests CR517 (R2,p36); see Dony nr. 558. Now: 1879, CR517, Edmond Duranty, pastel and tempera, 100×100, Glasgow AGM,(iR10;iR5;R2,p36;R47,p55). Détrempe means soaking wet, so the pastel (or oil paint) has been made wet; sometimes also called tempera. Tempera means that dry powder colour pigments are mixed with egg and / or water (iR3;iR5).
1879-59 Portrait après un bal costumé (détrempe)
Moffett suggests CR534; see Dony nr. 562. Probably: 1879, Portrait after a Costume Ball (Mme Dietz-Monnin), pastel, 86×75, AI Chicago, (iR59;iR2). For détrempe see no.58.
1879-60 Portrait d’amis, sur la scène (pastel)
Moffett suggests CR526; see Dony nr. 567. Probably: 1879, CR526, Wings of Desire (Ludovic Halevy and Albert Cave), pastel, 79×55, Orsay, (iR2;iR59).
1879-61 Portraits, à la bourse ; appartient à M. E.M…
Moffett suggests CR499 (R2,p278); see Dony nr. 454. Now: 1878-79, CR499, At the Stock Exchange, 100×81, Orsay, (iR59;iR2;R2,p278).
1879-62 Miss Lola, au cirque Fernando
Moffett suggests CR522 (R2,p279); see Dony nr. 560. Now: 1879, Miss La La at Cirque Fernando, 117×78, NG London (iR2;iR59;R2,p279;R47,p82;R27,p48).
1879-63 Chevaux de course (essence)
Moffett suggests CR262 or 649 (R2,p242); see Dony nr. 194 or 692. Option 1, 1869-72, CR262, Le défilé (Racehorses in front of the Stands), thinned oil, 46×61, Orsay, (iR10;iR2). Option 2, 1881ca, CR649, Jockeys before the Race, thinned oil, 108×74, BIFA Birmingham, (iR2;R26,no692). As option 2 probably is a later work I suggest only option 1. Degas showed 3 works of race horses in 1874. This is the only work he exhibited later on with the Impressionists. Essence means the oil is thinned with terpetine / gasoline.
1879-64 Blanchisseuses portant du linge en ville (esquisse à l’essence) ; appartient à M. Coquelin Cadet.
Moffett suggests CR410 (R2,p280); see Dony nr. 437. Now: 1876-78ca, CR410, laundress carrying linen, 46×61, private (iR2;R280). For ‘essence’ see no. 63. The title has many similarities with 1876-50. For more info see 1874-57.
1879-65 École de danse (détrempe) ; appartient à M. E.M…
Moffett suggests CR399 (R2,p258); see Dony nr. 489. Now: 1876, CR399, Dance School, 43×57, SM Vermont (iR10;R2,p258). For détrempe see no.58.
1879-66 École de danse ; appartient à M. H.R…
Moffett suggests CR537; see Dony nr. 727. Now: 1879ca, Rehearsal, 47×61, Frick coll NY, (iR2). H.R… is Henri Rouart (R2,p264). It was part of his legacy and sold in 1912 under no.15.1.
1879-67 Essai de décoration (détrempe)
Eng.: decorative study (tempera). Moffett suggests CR532; see Dony nr. 565. Moffett notes that this picture may not have bee exhibited and suggests that it was exhibited in 1881 outside the catalogue, see 1881-19+hc2. I go along with Moffett his suggestion and assume it was not exhibited. For détrempe see no.58.
1879-68 Portrait dans une baignoire à l’Opera (pastel)
Eng.: Portrait in a bath-tube at the Opera (pastel). Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As a very uncertain option a give: 1877-9ca, CR456, Femme nu se coiffant, pastel on monotype, 22×16, A20101102 (iR11;R26,no451). The setting suggests a dressing room with an actress and her admirer, maybe in the Opera.
1879-69 Portrait d’un peintre dans son atelier ; appartient à M. H.M.L….
Moffett suggests as options CR240 or 326 or 337; see Dony nr. ? or 362 (=CR362; typo?) or ? Compare CR175 = Dony nr. 240; or is CR240 a typo for CR175?. Option: 1867-68ca, CR175, Portrait of James Tissot 151×112, Metropolitan, (iR6;R26,no240;R27,p18). Option, 1873, CR362, Portrait of Henri Michel-Levy (or artist in his studio), 41×27, MFCG Lisbon, (iR2;R26,no362). I think the last one makes most sense because the work belonged to H.M.L… which probably is Henri Michel-Levi.
1879-70 Chanteuse de café (pastel) ; appartient à M. C. G…
(C.G.=Gustave Caillebotte?). Moffett suggests CR478bis; see Dony nr. 448. Now: 1878, CR478bis, Chanteuse de café (au gant), the singer with the glove, pastel, 53×41, FAM Cambridge, (iR6;iR59). Dony describes the technique as pastel and tempera, which is not indicated in the catalogue. So I render: 1878-9, CR477, café singer, 54×42, pastel, AI Chicago (iR2;R26,no449), which is a ‘normal’ pastel.
1879-71 Loge de danseuse (pastel) ; appartient à Mme A de C…
Moffett suggests CR529; see Dony nr. 728. Now: 1879, CR529, Dancer in Her Dressing Room, pastel, 60×43, coll Oskar Reinhart, (iR2). Other options might be: 1878ca, CR497, Dancer’s Dressing Room, pastel, 58×44, private (iR2;R26,no518) and: 1879ca, CR561, Dancer in Her Dressing Room, pastel, 88×38, Cincinnati AM (iR8;R26,no736).
1879-72 Danseuse posant chez un photographe ; appartient à M. Brame
Moffett suggests CR447; see Dony nr. 505. Now: 1877-78ca, CR447, Dancer Posing for a Photographer (‘Dancer in Front of the Window’), 65×50, Pushkin, (iR2).
1879-73 Grand air, après un ballet (pastel)
Moffett suggests CR521; see Dony nr. 745. Now: 1879, aria after the ballet, pastel + gouache, 60×75, MA Dallas (iR6;iR10). Note: The gouache isn’t mentioned in the catalogue.
1879-74 Portrait de danseuse, à la leçon (pastel)
Moffett suggests CR450; see Dony nr. 503. Now: 1877-78, CR450, The Dance Lesson, pastel, 67×59, Metropolitan, (iR2;iR59).
1879-75 Portraits de M. et Mme H. de C. (détrempe à pastel)
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. The catalogue of Dony doesn’t provide an option to. Maybe now: 1876-7ca, Ludovic Halevy Speaking with Madame Cardinal, pastel on monotype, 27×18, private (iR2). Note: if my suggestion is correct the catalogue title must have been: Portraits de M. H. et Mme de C. The monotype technique isn’t mention in the title either. For détrempe see no.58.
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As a very uncertain suggestion I give: 1867, CR166, Study for the Portrait of Josephine Gaujean, 35×27, Kh Hamburg, (iR2;iR10;R26,no225).
1879-77 Éventail ; appartient à M. Brame
Moffett suggests CR457 (R2,p248+281); see Dony nr. 542. : 1879ca, CR457, Fan, the ballet, wc, 16×54, Metropolitan (iR59).
1879-78 Éventail ; appartient à Mme L.H.
1879-79 Éventail ; appartient à Mme H. R…
Moffett suggests for 1879-78, 79, 80 and 81 ‘perhaps’ CR566 and 567; see Dony no. 544 and 543. Other options: Dony no. 281, 289, 541, 544-555. See also R47,p56+81.
1879-81+hc Répétition de ballet sur la scène
Pickvance suggests Degas showed CR498 outside the catalogue (=hc=hors catalogue). This because of a critic of Silvestre (1879/04/24) (R2,p264/5). In the catalogue of Moffett this suggestion is not repeated (R2,p268). Now: 1873-74, CR498, The Rehearsal on Stage, pastel, 53×72, Metropolitan, (iR2;R26,no469). Compare: 1874-54+60 and 1877-61.
The fifth ‘impressionist’ exposition 1880:
- catalogue numbers 33-44.
- At least two works were not exhibited (no.33 + 34 and?; R2,p309) and two works exhibited outside the catalogue (=hors catalogue = hc)
- Number 44 contained of at least 2 engravings.
- No. 42+43 both contained of at least 2 drawings.
- So in total Degas exhibited at least 14 works, including 4 pastels, at least 4 drawings and at least 2 engravings.
- 1x indication of place
- 0x indication of time, season or weather
- 2x a study
- 3x loans (appartient à…), 2 of M. E. M. (no.35+40) and 1 of M. L. (no.41)
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p311)
1880-33 Petites filles Spartiates provoquant des garçons (1860)
(not exhibited, R2,p311+301). See Dony no. 86. Now: 1860ca, Spartans exercising , 110×155, NG London (iR2).
1880-34 Petite danseuse de quatorze ans (statuette en cire)
(not exhibited, R2,p311+336;R26,p160). See 1881-12.
1880-35 Portraits à la bourse; appartient à M. E.M.
Moffett suggests CR499 in Musée d’Orsay (R2,p278). Now: 1878-79, CR499, At the Stock Exchange, 100×81, Orsay, (iR2;R26,no454). Also exhibited as 1879-61.
Moffett suggests CR517 in Glasgow AGM (R2,p36). Now: 1879, CR517, Edmond Duranty, pastel tempera, 100×100, Glasgow AGM, (iR6;R26,no558). Dony indicates this work was made of pastel and tempera, which is not indicated in the title (R26,no558). There is also a smaller pastel version in the NGA Washington. Degas also showed this work in 1879 (no.58). So I assume he now showed another work. As a very uncertain option I render: 1877ca, CR441, Mll. Malo, 81×65 NGA Washington (iR2;iR10; R26,no419).
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As a very uncertain suggestion I give: 1877, CR442, Portrait of a Woman, 65×54 or 86×77, Detroit IA (iR2;R26,no420). The background shows similarities with that of no.36.
1880-38 étude de loge au théâtre; pastel
Moffett suggests CR584. Now: 1880, CR584, the loge, pastel, 66×53, private (iR59;R26,no762).
1880-39 Toilette; pastel
Moffett suggests with a perhaps CR554 in a private collection in New York (R2,p322). Now: 1879ca, CR554, After the Bath, pastel on monotype, 21×16, private, (iR2;R26,no864). Note: the catalogue doesn’t indicate the pastel was drawn over a monotype.
1880-40 Examen de danse; pastel; appartient à M. E.M.
Moffett suggests CR576 in Denver MA (R2,p323). Now: 1880ca, CR576, The Dancing Examination, pastel, 62×47, Denver AM, (iR2;iR59;R26,no761). Compare: 1876-37.
1880-41 Danseuses; appartient à M. L…
Moffett suggests CR559 in Shelburne museum Vermont (R2,p303). Now: 1879, CR559, Two Ballet Dancers, pastel, 45×65, Shelburne M, (iR2;iR59;R26,no738). Note: the catalogue didn’t indicate this work was a pastel.
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. Both titles indicate a plural form, so I assume Degas showed at least 2×2=4 drawings. I render very uncertain options: 1880-42-1: 1879-80ca, Edmond Duranty, drawing, 31×47, Metropolitan (iR10;R27,p22); compare 1879-58. 1880-42-2: 18xx, Portrait of Diego Martelli, dr, xx, xx (iR10); compare 1879-57. 1880-43-1: 1879, 4 studies of the 14 year old little dancer, dr, 48×31, Louvre CdD (iR10;R3,p122;R27,p59). 1880-43-2: 1880ca, CR586bis, three studies of a dancer, dr, 81×51, private (iR10;R26,no766;R27,p57). Compare 1880-34 and 1881-12. Note: My last two suggestions represent several drawings within 1 work, so this makes my assumption uncertain that Degas showed at least 2×2 works.
1880-44 Eaux-fortes. Essais et états de planches
The plural form indicates probably that this number contained at least 2 works. Moffett suggests Delteil no. 30, now in the Louvre, Musée des Antiquités. I could not identify this work. I render two very uncertain options: 1880-44-1: 1880ca, Mary Cassatt at the Louvre, etch dry point, 27×24, TMA Ohio (iR59;R27,p25) . 1880-44-2: 1879-80, Actresses in Their Dressing Rooms, etch, 23×31, Metropolitan (iR8).
Moffett suggests two options: 1.: CR828, A Ballet from an Opera Box in the Philadelphia MA, but this work is made around 1885 (R2,no816) Or 2.: CR476, Dancer with bouquet in the Rhode Island School of Design; now: 1878, CR476, Dancer with a Bouquet of Flowers, pastel, 40×50, Providence RISD (or Orsay), (iR2;R26,no509;R47,p57). This one I will render
1880-44+hc2 La leçon de danse
Moffett suggests CR625 of the Mellon collection in Upperville (R2,p324). Now: 1879-85ca, CR625, The Dance Lesson, 38×88, coll PM Virginia, (iR2;R26,no786).
The sixth ‘impressionist’ exposition 1881:
- catalogue numbers 12-19
- 4 works were exhibited outside the catalogue (=hors catalogue = hc)
- in total Degas exhibited 12 works: 1 sculpture; 6 oil paintings; 3 pastels; 1 drawing; 1 monotype
- 0x indication of place
- 0x indication of time, season or weather
- 0x a study; though no. 17+18 look like studies
- 0x loans (appartient à…)
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p354)
1881-12 Petite danseuse de quatorze ans (statuette en cire)
Moffett suggests a sculpture in the Mellon collection in Upperville (R2,p336+361), now part of the NGA Washington collection (see): 1881ca, the little fourteen year old dances, wax + applied materials, 99×35, NGA Washington (iR2;iR59;R26,p160). There are several musea who have a bronze version. See also R11,p220. Huysmans writes that Degas did tumble down the traditions of sculpture with his work (R26,p164).
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion for these 4 works. I render 4 very uncertain options of portraits of men: No.13: 1875-7, CR378, Jérôme Ottoz, 46×37, private (iR10;R26,no405). No.14: 1875-80, CR389, portrait of a man, 55×45, MFA Boston (iR2;R26,no445). No. 15: 1877ca, CR439, Alfred Niaudet, 46×32, VMFA Richmond (iR10;R26,no433). No. 16: 1877-85ca, CR660, Portrait of a Man, 79×59, CAI Williamstown (iR2;R26,no606).
1881-17 Physionomie de criminel
1881-18 Physionomie de criminel
Moffett suggests CR638 + 639 (R2,p342). Now: 1881ca, CR638, Physiognomie de criminal, pastel, 64×76, private, (iR10;R26,no582) and probably: 1881, Criminal Physiognomies, pastel, 64×76, private, (iR2;iR59).
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As an uncertain option I render: 1880-85ca, CR846, Woman Ironing, 81×75, WAG Liverpool, (iR2;iR10;R26,no638;R47,p86).
1881-19+hc1 Vue de coulisses
Moffett suggests CR1024 in the NGA in Washington or CR500 in the Corcoran GA in Washington (R2,p360). The first one is a work made around 1890, so I don’t think this really is an option (R26,no859). The second one now is: 1878-80, CR500, Before the ballet, 32×25,CGA Washington (iR10;R26,no540) Compare also 1874-56; 1876-47+48; 1877-52.
1881-19+hc2 Projet de portraits en frise
Moffett suggests CR532 in a private collection (R2,p341). Now: 1880ca, CR532, a frieze, three women, pastel and tempera, 50×65, private, (iR2;R26,no565). Compare 1879-67 that (maybe) wasn’t exhibited then. The person in the middle is Mary Cassatt (R26,no565).
1881-19+hc3 Chanteuses en scène
Moffett suggests CR405 in Md Lyon or CR404 in Corcoran GA Washington, or CR372. The first one is now: 1875-77ca, CR405, Café Concert – At ´Les Ambassadeurs´, pastel, 37×26, MBA Lyon, (iR2;R26,no413). Moffett also suggested this one for 1877-44. The second one is: 1877, CR404, The Café Concert, pastel, 24×43, CGA Washington, (iR2;R26,no411). Moffett also suggests this one for 1877-43 (R2,p360). The last one is now: 1875ca, CR372, Mademoiselle Becat aux ambassadeurs, litho pastel, 12×21, xx (iR10;R26,no385). I render the last one. See info 1877-42.
1881-19+hc4 Femme nue
Moffett suggests a monotype in the MFA Boston or in the Stanford University Art Museum (R2,p363). Now: 1879ca, Room in a brother, monotype ink, 21×16, Stanford UMA Palo Alto (iR10;R2,p363). Compare other monotype drawings: 1877-58+59+60.
The eight ‘impressionist’ exposition 1886:
- catalogue numbers 14-28.
- in total Degas exhibited 15 works, all pastels except no. 18, which maybe also was a pastel; 10x suite de nus (no.19-28).
- 0x indication of place
- 0x indication of time, season or weather
- 1x a study
- 7x loans (appartient à…),
- See for the suggestions of Moffett (R2,p443)
1886-14 Femme essayant un chapeau chez sa modiste (pastel) ; appartient à Mme. A.
Moffett suggests CR682 in the Metropolitan (R2,p435). Now: 1882, CR682, At the Milliner’s, pastel, 76×86, Metropolitan, (iR59;iR2;R26,no586). Degas one time earlier exhibited a work of milliners with the Impressionists see 1876-57.
1886-15 Petite modistes (pastel) ; appartient à M. A.R.
Moffett suggests CR681 in the NAMA in Kansas City (R2,p437). Now: 1882, CR681, The Little Milliners, pastel, 48×69 , NAMA Kansas city, (iR2;iR59;R26,no587). See no.14.
1886-16 Portrait (pastel)
Moffett suggests CR831 in a private collection in Paris. Now: 1885ca, CR831, portrait of Zacherie Zacharian, pastel, 40×40, private (iR2;iR10;R26,no642).
1886-17 Ébauche de portraits (pastel)
Eng.: Draft / sketch of portraits (pastel). Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As an uncertain option I give: 1885, CR824, Six Friends of the Artist, pastel, 115×71, Providence SDMA, (iR2;iR8;R26,no641;R27,p73). So despite the plural in the title, I assume this is just one work.
1886-18 Têtes de femme
Moffett doesn’t give a suggestion. As an uncertain option I give: 1886, CR868, mademoiselle Salle, pastel, 50×50, xx (iR10;iR13;R26,no651). Note: the title doesn’t indicate this work was a pastel, so this makes my suggestion more uncertain. Despite the plural in the title, I assume this is just one work.
Suite de nuds de femmes se baignant, se lavant, se séchant, s’essuyant, se peignant ou se faisant peigner (pastels) :
A serie of nude women who are bathing, washing, drying, wiping of, combing themselves or who are combed (pastels):. ‘Nuds’ is writing error for ‘nus’ (R2,p452) .
1886-19 1 ; appartient à M.E.B
1886-20 2; appartient à M.E.B.
1886-21 3; appartient à M.R.B.
1886-22 4; appartient à M.M.
1886-23 5; appartient à M.H.
Note: there are 6 activities mentioned in the titles. Moffett mentions that probably there were not 10 works shown. Huysmans describes only 4 works, another review mentions 6 poses what corresponds the activities mentioned in the titles. Moffett does several suggestions: CR717, CR728 (Orsay), CR738 (Tate), CR765 (Glasgow AGM); CR815 (NSM Pasadena); CR816 (Metropolitan); CR847 (Metropolitan); CR848 or 849; CR872 (Orsay); CR875 (Metropolitan); CR876 Hillstead M Farmington; CR877 (Pearlman Foundation New York). Furthermore a work in the Hermitage and in NGA Washington. See also R2,p430+453+454).
The work in the NGA Washington probably is: 1885, CRsup113, Après la bain, femme s’essuyant, (Girl Drying Herself), pastel, 80×51, NGA Washington, (iR2;iR59;R2,p452). This one corresponds the description of Maurice Hermel (1886/05/27): ‘In a corner of some broadly sketched greenery is a large bather in the open air who sledes over her upraised elbows the white linen that will cover her ample nudity.’ But he revers also to ‘putting on her slip’, which is not clear in the painting. (iR2,p452). (Geffroy (1886/05/26) also refers to ‘reaching out her arms to put het slip back on’.)
Michel (1886/05/18) refers to a woman ‘washing herself with a sponge’, which probably refers to: 1883ca, CR728, Woman in a Bath Sponging Her Leg, pastel on monotype, 20×41, Orsay, (iR2;R26,no889).
Geffroy (1886/05/26) writes about 9 different situations / poses. The 1st ‘lowering herself into … her bathtub’ corresponds (among others) with: 1886ca, CR876, the tube, Woman in the Bath, pastel, 70×70, HSM Farmington, (iR6;R26,no921;R2,p430;R47,p99). The 6th ‘on her knees drying herself with a towel’ corresponds with: 1883ca, CR738, Woman in a Tub (Femme au bain), pastel, 69×69, Tate, (iR2;R26,no885). The 7th he describes: ‘standing, head lowered, and her rump sticking out’ (R2,p453). This corresponds with: 1885, Leaving the Bath, pastel on monotype, 44×24, private (iR2); this one is not mentioned by Moffett. The 8th ‘bending over to one side’ corresponds with: 1884ca, CR765, woman in bath tube, pastel, 45×65, AGM Glasgow (iR59;R26,no908). The 9th he describes ‘He has seen her from floor level, next to marble stands piled with scissors, brushes, combs, switches of false hair.’ This corresponds with: 1886, CR872, the tub, 60×83, pastel, Orsay, (iR6;R26,no920;R47,p103;R11,p314/5). this corresponds also with his 3rd description ‘sponging the nape of her neck’.
Paul Adam (1886/04) describes ‘het hands flat on her lower back, she contemplates herself no doubt, in some invisible mirror’. This corresponds with: 1886ca, CR877, The Morning Bath, 67×52, Pearl Foundation, (iR2;R2,p454). He also describes ”their thighs, backs, and contoured hips distended by crouching’, which corresponds with: 1884-86ca, CR788, Après le bain; femme s’essuyant (After the bath; Woman Drying Herself), pastel, 43×34, MUMA Le Havre (iR2;R26,no906).
The description ‘woman combing her hair’ corresponds with: 1885-88ca, CR849, Female Nude, from the Rear, Fixing Her Hair, pastel, 64×53 or 71×59, private (iR2;R26,no914) and as second alternative I just mention: 1884-5ca, CR898, Femme se peignant, (Woman combing her hair), pastel, 50×50, Hermitage, (iR6;R47,p96); a work that is not suggested by Moffett. CR849 also corresponds with the description of Desclozeaux (1886/05/27) ‘the red marks caused by toweling’ (R2,p453).
Following the various descriptions, it’s not hard to find 10 works that correspond with it. The description ‘woman being combed’ corresponds with this painting: 1885ca, CR847, Woman Having Her Hair Combed, pastel, 74×60, Metropolitan, (iR2;R26,no918). But I leave it out, because I have reached my 10 works already.
Degas at the Salon:
S1865-2406 Scène de guerre au moyen âge ; pastel
Degas his debut at the Salon. Now: 1865, CR124, War Scene from the Middle Ages (The Suffering City of Orléans), thinned oil,81×147, Orasy (iR2;R47,p35;R26,no107;R27,p93). Note: Dony talks about a pastel (R26,p12).
S1866-520 Scène de steeple-chase
Now: 1866, CR140, Scene from the Steeplechase (The Fallen Jockey, 180×152, NGA Washington (iR35;R47,p34;R26,no167;R27,p93). Receives good critics (R47,p33).
S1867- 444 Portrait de famille
Now: 1858-67, CR79, family portrait (the Bellelli family), 200×253, Orsay, (iR6;R47,p20,7;R26,no139). it did not receive much attention (R11,p107).
S1867- 445 Portrait de famille
Never identified with certainty. Options are: 1866-70, CR265, Portrait of Mme Lisle and Mme Loubens, 85×97 , AI Chicago (iR10;iR2;R26,no265;R47,p7). And: 1865-6, two sisters, Giovanna and Giulia Bellelli, 92×73, CMA Los Angeles (iR2;R47,p37,7;R26,no215). Another option is: 1865ca, Two sisters; the nieces of the painter, 57×70, WA Hartford (R27,p15).
S1868-686 Portrait de Mlle E. F… ; à propos du ballet de la Source
Now: 1866-68, CR146, Eugénie Fiocre à propos du ballet ‘La Source’, 130×145, NY Brooklyn M (iR2;R47,p8;R26,no282;R27,p93;R27,p29). Note the rendering of details (R47,p40).
S1869-661 Portrait de Mme G…
Now: 1867, CR165, Joséphine Gaujean, 59×44, ISGM Boston, (iR2;R47,p8;R26,no224;R27,p93). It was hung on a very bad spot (R47,p34).
The next work was rejected: 1869, CR207, Madame Camus at the Piano, 139×64 (or: 142×95), Bührle, (iR2;R47,p7,34;R26,no246;R27,p19).
S1870-758 Portrait de Mme C…
Now 1870, CR271, Madame Camus with a Fan, 73×92, NGA Washington, (iR2;R47,p8+47;R26,no258;R27,p93).
S1870-3320 Portrait de Mme G…. ; pastel
Now probably: 1869, CR214, Madame Théodore Gobillard (Yves Morisot), pastel, 48×30, Metropolitan (iR8;iR2;R26,no250). Last time he submitted (R47,p47;iR1;R27,p93).
At the Exposition Universelle in Paris there are 2 paintings and 5 pastels exhibited (R47,p121).