Please be reluctant, when you quote from this webpage, which is under construction.
The information is incomplete and maybe partly incorrect.


Impressionism, a historical reconstruction:


of the ‘impressionists’

an overview


On this page you will find overviews of some characteristics of the partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions (and some related artists). The characterics that are mentioned are: gender; nationality; age; prosperity; political opinions; religious beliefs.


Most of the partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions were men. In the catalogues there are 3 women mentioned. Marie Bracquemond, Mary Cassatt and Berthe Morisot. Jacques François who did partake in 1876 + 77 was a pseudonym for a woman and was posibly the same as Comtesse de Rambure, who participated in 1886, but wasn’t in the catalogue. In 1874 Comtesse de Luchaire participated, but she also wasn’t in the catalogue. So probably there have been 5 women that participated and 52 men.

Most partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions were of course French by nationality. But not all. Mary Cassatt was born in the USA, in Pennsylvania.
Edgar Degas was French, though his grandfather had fled to Italy and part of the family still lived there.

Here below you will find two overviews of the partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions. One in order of birth and one in order of death. Some partakers are left out, because these data are unknown, namely Jacques François, who probably is the same as Comtesse de Rambure and Comtesse de Luchaire.


Some partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions came from a richer background, others from a more poor background. Here you will find an overview. Note: of many partakers there is no information on this.
A richer background:


A poorer background:


Political opinions:
First I will render some information on the political constitution of France. (See links to more info on WikiPedia (=iR3) and to general info on France.) Since the 16th century France had been a kingship with kings from the Bourbon dynasty. During the French Revolution of 1789 King Louis XVI was overtrown and in 1792 the 1st French Republic was proclaimed. In 1804 Napoleon Bonaparte became the 1st Emperor. This lasted till 1814/15 when the Bourbon dynasty was re-installed. After the July revolution of 1830, Louis Philippe I, from the house of Orléans became king. After the Februar Revolution of 1848 the 2nd French Republic was proclaimed and Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte became the 1st French president. After a coup d’etat 1851/12/02 he became emperor Napoleon III. The French-Prussian war started 1870/07/19, early September Napoleon III was captured and the 3rd French Republic proclaimed. The war ended 1871/02/28 with an armistice.

In France (after the French-Prussian war) some people wanted to re-install the monarchy. Some wanted to re-install the Bourbon dynasty, the so-called Legitimists, some were Orléanists.

In France (after the French-Prussian war) some people wanted to re-install the empire by a descendent of the Bonapart dynasty.



Anarchism and Socialism:
Several people in France, including partakers of the ‘impressionist’ expositions, sympatised with the Socialist ideas of Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825), Charles Fourier (1772-1837), Louis Blanc (1811-82), Karl Marx (1818-83), Friedrich Engels (1820-93), and Anarchist ideas of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-65).


The Dreyfus case:


Religious beliefs:
In the 19th century many French were Roman Catholic. At least at important momements in life the church played a role in many lifes, namely the baptism as a baby, the marriage and the funeral. Due to the French Revolution France became a secular state and the power of the Roman Catholic church in France was limited. In the Charter of 1814 the freedom of religion was ordained.





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