art workshops

Meta Impressionism

École des Beaux-Arts

Art-workshops

 

Introduction:
The Art-workshops or studios were partly a preparation for the École des Beaux-Arts and partly a sort of internship along side the lessons at the École. Famous art-workshops are the Atelier Gleyre, the Académie Suisse, the Académie Julian and the Atelier Cormon. Other famous studios were those of Cabanel and Gérôme.

 

Art-workshops:
Apart from the teachings at the École des Beaux-Arts the professors had their own art-workshops / atelier / studio. According to Walther, there were 1863 onwards 11 ateliers, including 3 for painters, leaded by Cabanel, Gérôme and Pils (R3,p660). Apparently in 1882 Pils, who died 1875, was subplaced by Lehnmann. Antonin Proust had the idea to replace them by a rotating group of 10 or 12 instructors, among them Manet (R2,p57). Often the professor made recommendations to the Salon jury on behalf of their students (iR3).

 

Atelier Gleyre:
Charles Gleyre (1806-74) took over in 1843 the studio of Paul Delaroche (R88I,p299;R3,p665;R5,p19). He asked a course fee of just 10 francs a month, mainly to contribute to the rent of the premises, first at Rue d’Erfurt, later at Rue de l’Ouest (R5,p19;R88I,p299); Wildenstein mentions 94, Rue du Bac and 70, Rue  Notre-Dame-des-Champs and that he asked 10 francs a month after an entrance commission of 75 francs (R22I,p45); others render 69, Rue de Vaugirard as address (R116I,p114). He gave much freedom to his pupils, but his emphasize was on figure painting, not on landscape painting. He inspected and corrected the works of his pupils twice a week. Sometimes he gave a composition assignment. His atelier closed July 1864 because Gleyre had eye problems (and financial problems). There had been earlier financial problems, wherefor the Atelier was closed from the early summer till October 1863. (R9,p337;R88I,p299+300;R88II,p1012;R22I,p45-52;R3,p665;R166,P259;R5,p19).
Among his pupils were:

  • Gérôme (R9;R22I,p45)
  • Toulmouche (R22I,p45)
  • Whistler; 1855 (or 56) till ? (R88I,p299+882;R9;R3,p665;R5,p19)
  • Lépic  1863/03 till ? (R22I,p48;iR1;R88I,p299+440)
  • Laporte (Émile; 1841-1919; a friend of Renoir), 1862-? (R31,p295;R88I,p412;R9,p440),
  • Renoir, from 1861/11/08 till 1864/07 (R31,p179;R3,p665;R22I,p50;R5,p19)
  • Bazille, from 1862/11/10 till 1864/07 (R22I,p45+50;R88II,p1009;R31,p179;R9;R3,p665;R5,p19)
  • Monet: 1862/11 till 1864/07? (R22I,p43+50;R88I,p542;R88II,p1009;R9;R3,p665;R5,p19)
  • Sisley: 1862/10 till 1864/07 (R88II,p1009;R3,p665); others say: 1860-62 (R166,p259+260)

 

Académie Suisse:
Situated at 4, Quai des Orfèvres (Île de la Cité) and started by Charles Suisse. The studio was a preparation for the École des Beaux-Arts, but there was no guidance or control. Mostly nude studies were done. One could paint here in the early morning (6-9h) and in the evenings till 22h. (R3,p644;R22I,p25+26;R179,p15;R5,p19)
Among the pupils were:

  • Monet: started about 1860/02/20 and stopped before 1861/03/02 (R22I,p25+34;R88II,p1007;R3,p644;R116I,p112)
  • Pissarro: 1857-61 (R116,p108-113;R88II,p1004-9;R3,p644)
  • Guillaumin, 1861? till  ? (R179,p15;R88I,p319;R88II,p1008;R3,p644;R116I,p111); some say he started in 1860 or 1863 or 1864
  • Piette: 1860? (R116I,p111;R5,p19)
  • Cézanne:  1861/04 -1861/09 + 1862/11-?  (R22I,p26;R88I,p112;R88II,p1007-9;R3,p644;R116I,p113)
  • Oller (Francisco Oller y Cestro; 1833-1917): 1858 till at least 1862/11 (R88II,p1009;R179,p15;R116I,p110)
  • Guillemet: at least 1862/11 (R88II,p1009;R5,p19)
  • Delacroix (R3,p644;R22I,p25)
  • Daumier (R3,p644)
  • Courbet (R3,p644;R22I,p25)
  • Bonington (R22I,p25)
  • Isabey (R22I,p25)
  • Corot (R22I,p25)

 

Académie Julian:
Started by Rodolphe Julian (1839-1907). The studio was a preparation for the École des Beaux-Arts. There were  no entrance exams. In the 1880s the monthly fees were 60 francs.
Since 1875 Bouguereau was a teacher here and would be so for decades, teaching hundreds of students, including Henri Matisse (iR3). Other teachers were: Boulanger, Ferrier, Fleury, Laurens, Lefèbvre. They corrected once a week the works of the students. In the 1880s there were about 600 pupils a year.
Around 1888 there was a group of  students that later formed Les Nabis: Bernard (?), Bonnard, Denis, Ibels, Ranson, Roussel, Sérusier and Vallotton and Vuillard (see).
Among the other students were: Corinth, Lacombe, Maurin and Matisse.
Main sources: R3,p644;R289;R298;iR3.

 

Atelier Cormon:
Art-workshop run by Fernand Cormon (1845-1924), who made his debut at the Salon in 1870 with a history painting. Later depicted biblical and prehistorian scenes. Also known as a portrait and mural painter. in 1898 he became professor at the École des Beaux-Arts and member of L’Institut. In his art-workshop he was loved for his liberalism.
In the 1880s well known pupils were: Anquetin (1883-85), Bernard (1884 till 1886/04/06), Laval, Toulous-Lautrec (1883-86) and Van Gogh (1886).
Main sources: R3,p656;R88I,p150/1.

 

General sources:
My main sources are Walther (2013=R3), Denvir (R5), Raeburn (1985=R31), Wildenstein (1996=R22I), Adams (1994=R59), Monneret (1978-81=R88), Pissarro & Durand-Ruel (2005=R116I), the Exposition Universelles catalogues (R231), the Salon database (iR1), WikiPedia (iR3-5), Joconde (iR23). See the link for other general References (=Rx) and to the internet references (=iRx). See links for practical hints and abbreviations and for the subscription of the paintings.

Additional sources (=aRx):

  1. WikiPedia//École des Beaux-Arts (page on WikiPedia = iR3)
  2. jssgallery.org//École des Beaux-Arts (page on jss gallery =iR359)
  3. x

 

 

Citation: Please do not quote from this webpage, which is under construction. The information is incomplete and maybe partly incorrect.