Chronology Art-events

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Chronology art-events



On this page important data in the history of the Salon are rendered. Sometimes there is a link to more info on another page on this website or an external link to another website. My main sources are Denvir (1993=R5) and Monneret (1978-81=R88II,p997-1064). For the general references see. For references to internet pages see.

Here you will find in chronological order art-events that were related to Impressionism with an emphasize on 1850-1900. For events related to the Paris Salon see. My main sources are Denvir (1993=R5) and Monneret (1978-81=R88II,p997-1064). For the general references (=R) see and for the references to internet pages (=iR) see.




Foundation of the Académie Royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture) (iR3;R3,p660;iR3);

The first Salon was held in the Salon Carré of the Louvre (R88II,p386/7)

Foundation of the Académie de musique (iR3)

foundation of the Académie d’architecture (iR3)

Start of the exhibitions of members of the Académie called Salon des Beaux-Arts in the large Salon Carré in the royal palace in the Louvre (R3,p56). Or: 1667.

The Salon was held in the Louvre

For the first time public was aloud at the Salon.

For the first time a jury was appointed.

For the first time foreigh partakers were admitted.


Also non-members of the Académie were admitted (R3,p56)


  • Almost half of the paintings exhibited were landscapes (R60,p55)
  • The École des Beaux-Arts was founded; it was part of the Institut de France (R3,p660)

Start Prix de Rome for history painting (R59, p24) or in 1801 = paysage historique (R60,p55) or 1816? see below

Foundation of the Institut de France, which contained 5 academies, including the Académie des Beaux-Arts (R3,p670).



  • Start Prix de Rome for landscape painting / historical landscape (Fr.: Paysage historique) (R59, p24; R61,p14) or in 1817 (R60,p97)
  • The Académie was created as a fusion of the academies of Painting and Sculpture, of Music and of Architecture (iR3)

First winner Prix de Rome for history painting / historical landscape: Achille-Atna Michallon with Démocrite et les Abdéritains (R59, p20; R60, p76; R61,p12)


Golden medals for Bonington (a fishmarket) and Constable (The Haywain). Their works (rendering nature as it is) stimulated the Barbizon-painters to do the same. (R59,p51)


Legion d’Honneur for Daguerre and his ‘The effect of fog and snow seen through a ruined Gothic colonnade’. In this work he rendered the effects of light and shade under influence of weather conditions, an important theme for the later Impressionists. (R59, p66)



Rousseau received a third-class medal. (R59, p103)


Rousseau was rejected by the jury and would so again in ’37 and ’38 after which he stopped submitting his paintings. (R59,p103) Dupré formally protested against this rejection, organised an association of ‘réfusés’ at his home,  and also stopped submitting his paintings as did many of his colleagues . The organisation of an independent exhibition (in 1847) didn’t succeed. Still Rousseau’s works were exhibited in the studios of Huet and Scheffer (R59,p109+112). (See also an ambivalent relation.)


Debut Rosa Bonheur (R59,p161).



Debut of Courbet (R59,p139).


  • The jury was abolished, all the works (=5180) submitted were accepted (R3,p56).
  • Prize winners were Corot, Diaz, Troyon, Daubigny and Rosa Bonheur. (R59,p132+136)
  • 1848-1852: Charles Blanc was Directeur de L’Administration des Beaux-Arts  (R2,p101)

For the first time medals were introduced (???).

Courbet exhibited Enterrement à Ornans + Casseurs de pierres etc. Corot: Une matinée, danse des Nymphes, etc. (R88)
First Exposition Universelles in London (R88)


Exhibited at the Salon (?): Courbet (les Demoiselles de village); Daubiny (L’Écluse d’Optevoz); Daumier (Les Parisiens à la campagne); debut Félix Bracquemond (R88)

  • The Académie got back privileges they had lost in 1830.
    Since then the Salon was organised two-yearly and the government almost stopped buying landscapes (R59, p182)
  • Finish of the Palais de l’Industrie at the Champs Elysées. The Salon will be held here (R5,p25)
  • Exhibited at the Salon: Courbet (Les Baigneuses) (R88)

Jules Breton received a third-class medal for his ‘les glaneuses’ . Painted in a realist style it showed more an idealized image of peasant life, than the hardships of the very poorest who only had the right to glean (R59, p158-174).
?? The Salon was replaced to 1855 (R88).


  • ‘Exposition International Universelle’ with 5000 art works; with Ingres, Delacroix, Corot, Millet, Rousseau (R3,p30;R88); Troyon was member of the jury (R59,p161) .
  • Refused: Courbet (L’Atelier + L’Enterrement à Ornans); (R88)
  • Courbet organised his ‘Pavillion de Réalisme’ in which he showed 40 paintings (R59, p142;R3,p30)
  • Jongkind returned to Holland after deception at the Exposition Universelle (R88)

From 1855-63 the Salon was held every two years; so this year there was no Salon (R3,p56)


Exhibited at the Salon: Courbet (Les demoiselles du bord de Seine; Millet (Les Glaneuses) (R88)


From 1855-63 the Salon was held every two years; so this year there was no Salon (R3,p56)

  • For the first time photographs were accepted for the Salon (R88)
  • Delacroix in the jury; protests the rejection of Manet; (R3,p36;R71,p84)
  • Refused: Whistler (Au pianon); Manet (Buveur d’Absinthe); Millet (La Mort + Le bûcheron; exhibited at atelier Tillot); Fantin-Latour (3x: Portrait des soeurs de l’artiste, one reading, one embroidering (R88)
  • There was an exposition of refused at atelier Bonvin: Whistler, Fatin-Latour (R88)
  • Debut: Lépine; Pissarro (R88)

Large feast of Realism in the studio of Courbet (R88)

From 1855-63 the Salon was held every two years; so this year there was no Salon (R3,p56)
Galery Martinet opened (R88).
Exposition peinture moderne with Corot, Courbet, Decamps, Delacroix, Dupré, Millet, Rousseau (R88).
‘Project société artistes’, with Barye Daumier, Millet, Rousseau and Ziem (R88).
Sale by many artists for the benefit of Jongkind; Cals went to Holland to bring him back to Paris (R88).


  • start of the ‘Salon des Arts Unis’ by Ingres and other conservative artists (R2,p94)
  • At Atelier Suisse: Cézanne, Guillaumin, Pissarro
  • Exhibited at the Salon: Manet (Le chanteur espagnol (mention honorable) + M. et Mme (his parents) (R88).
    Refused for the Salon: Pissarro (R88)

Martinet and Théophile Gautier founded the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. 1862/06/15: first exhibition (R88).
Foundation of the Exposition des aquafortistes by Cadart (R88)
Expisition Universelle in London; 200 works from France were exhibited; there also was a section for Japonese art (R88).
From 1855-63 the Salon was held every two years; so this year there was no Salon (R3,p56)



  • Jury: Meissonier, Ingres, Delacroix (R71,p90); Count Alfred-Emilien de Nieuwerkerke (1811-92) was head of the Jury.
  • Excepted: Puvis de Chavannes (Cocordia et Bellum); Cabanel (la naissance de Vénus, bought by Napoléon III); Millet (L’Homme à la houe)
  • Of the 5000 submitted works, a fast number of about 2800 works were rejected by the Salon Jury (R5,p24) or 4000 works (R3,p58+60).
  • On decree by Napoleon III a Salon de Réfusés was held, opening 1863/05/15 in a part of the Palais de l’Industrie. ‘Le déjeuner sur l’herbe’ by Manet causes tumult (R5,p24-7).
  • New rules for the Salon: 1. no more than three works may be submitted; 2. earlier price-winners don’t have to be judged by the Jury again.
  • Until 1863 the Jury consisted of members of the Académie des Beaux-Arts. Since 1864 3/4 of the Jury would be chosen by artists that had won a medal (R3,p56)
  • Salon-des-Réfuses
  • Delacroix died (R88)
  • Public sale Rousseau, including 72 paintings (R88)


Exhibited at the Salon: Courbet (Vénus et Psyché; disappeared); Meissonier (Napoléon III à Solférino); Moreau (Oedipe et le Sphinx); Fatin-Latour (hommage à Delacroix)
L’Union des artistes, founded by Cadart (R88)
1864/02: Sale of the atelier Delacroix (R88)

  • Cabanel, Corot, Gérome, Français, Gleyre were in the jury (R22,p58); Corot and Daubigny were in the jury and resisted the rejection of Renoir (R59,p177);
  • contract and home workers become a motive for the paintings at the Salon (R3,p82)

Gleyre was vice-president of a Jury of 24 persons (R22,p61). Corot and Daubigny also were part of the Jury, but couldn’t prefend a painting of Renoir to be rejected (R31,p295).

  • 1867/02/12: there was a retrospective exhibition of Ingres at the École des Beaux-Arts
  • Gleyre was member of the Jury (R22,p63). Rousseau was president of the jury and won grand medals (R59, p183). Corot received a first class medal. (R59, 184)
  • 1867/05/03 opening Exposition Universelle: most Barbizon painters were accepted, but none of the Impressionists (R5,p43; R59,p183)
  • solo exhibitions of Courbet and Manet in their own pavilions (R2,p94; R5,p43)
  • Bazille and others: an idea for an independent exhibition (R2,p93; R5,p42)
  • there was no Salon-des-Réfusés as some sources mention

Daubigny was in the jury. Monet, Bazille, Degas, Renoir, Morisot and Sisley were all admitted. (R59,p177) Millet received the Legion d’Honneur (R59,p184)

  • Februar: The government decides that artists who ever have exhibited at the Salon have the right to choose 2/3 of the Jury-members of the Salon (R5,p54; R3,p56)
  • In the Jury of the Salon are: Gérome (chairman), Gleyre, Daubigny (R22,p77)
  • 1870/03/20 a group of avant garde artists suggest Manet and Millet as Jury-members, but they are not chosen.
  • Corot and Daubigny resigned from the jury after a work of Monet was rejected. Chintreuil also was in the jury.
  • 400 artists signed a document for a new Académie controlled by the artists themselves (R2,p104)
  • Because of the war there was no Salon
  • 1871/?: Jules Simon, a moderate Republican, was appointed Ministre de l’Instruction publique, des Cultes et des Beaux-Arts (R2,p101)
  • 1871/? – 1873/12: Charles Blanc was Directeur des Beaux-Arts (see also at 1848) (R2,p101)
  • 1871/03/28 during the Paris Commune: abolition of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts en the awards of the Paris Salon (R5,p69)
  • The Paris Salon was cancelled because of the Franco-Prussian war


  • The rules for the Salon were changed: (R2,p102)
  • After the suppression of the Commune, the standards of the Salon juries became increasingly strict and narrow (R2,p145)
  • The Jury should be chosen again only by artists who had won a medal (R3,p112), so leaving behind the rule of 1869 and reinforcing the rule of 1863
  • participating artists could only vote for a minority of members instead for the entire Jury (R2,p102)
  • Only 2 submissions were allowed (in stead of 3 as in 1870) (R2,p102)
  • Those who were admitted automatically in the past, weren’t no more (R2,p102)
  • 2072 works were exhibited at the Salon (R2,p104)
  • Charles Blanc argued for two Salons, one organized by the state and one by the artists (R2,p104)
  • Durand-Ruel starts to buy works of some Impressionists
  • 1872/05: 26 artists asked for a Salon des Réfusés, including Cézanne, Pissarro, Renoir and Fatin-Latour, Jongkind, Manet; it was rejected (R2,p104)


  • At the Salon: 2142 works; artists could submit 3 works; many rejections (R2,p104)
  • There was a Salon des Réfusés
  • 1873/12 – 1883?: Philippe de Chennevières, an aristocratic person, was Directeur des Beaux-Arts; he promoted patriotic art (R2,p101)
  • 1873/04/15: opening of the museum of copies in the Palais de l’Industrie with 121 works, organised by Charles Blanc (R2,p103;R287,p422)
  • 1873/05/15 Salon-des-Réfusés / ‘Exposition Artistique des Oeuvres Réfusés’ (R5,p78); there were 477 participants (R2,p104)
  • 1873/12/27 foundation of the ‘Société Anonyme…’


  • 1874/04/30: opening of the Salon (R2,p112); 3657 works were exhibited (R3,p58)
  • great succes by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904); Goupil sold his painting for 45.000 franc (R3,p140)
  • 1874/04/15 opening first ‘impressionistic’ exposition, see
  • 1874/04/25 Leroy first uses the term ‘Impressionists’ (but only in the title of his review), see
  • 1874/04/29: Castagnary explicitly uses the term ‘Impressionists’, see.
  • 1874/12/17 liquidation of the ‘Société Anonyme …


  • 51.509 catalogues were sold (R3,p58)
  • the government didn’t want to sponsor a Salon des Réfusés (R2,p158)
  • 1875/03/25 auction at Hôtel Drouot with Monet, Morisot, Renoir, Sisley; financial disaster


  • 2500 paintings were exhibited at the Salon (R3,p58)
  • 1876/04/01 opening second ‘impressionist’ exposition, see
  • 1876/05 Duranty publishes ‘La nouvelle peinture’ (R2,p491; R5,p94)
  • 1876/09/23 publication in the Art Monthly Review of Mallarmé’s article ’the Impressionists and Edouard Manet’ (R2,p491; R5,p95)


  • nearly 2000 works were exhibited at the Salon (R2,p190)
  • artists could exhibit 1-5 of there best works (R2,p190)
  • 1877/04/04 opening third ‘impressionist’ exposition, see
  • 1877/04 4x weekly publication of ‘L’Impressionniste, Journal d’Art’ by Rivière (R5,p100)
  • 1877/05/28 auction at Hôtel Drouot with Caillebotte, Renoir, Pissarro and Sisley (R5,p101)
  • 1877/12/31 Courbet dies in Switzerland (R5,p102; R63,p117)


  • 1878/05/01 opening International Exhibition at the Champ-de-Mars (R2,p246); at the art-section no impressionist work is exhibited (R5,p110) (R3,p152: opening 1878/06/30)
  • 1878/05 publishing of Duret’s ‘Les peintres impressionnistes; Claude Monet, Sisley, C. Pissarro, Renoir, Berthe Morisot


  • Renoir had a success at the Salon (R2,p293)
  • Cézanne and Sisley were rejected for the Salon (R2,p293)
  • 1879/04/10 opening of the fourth ‘impressionist’ exposition, see


  • the first Salon de la Société des Artistes Français was held (iR1)
  • 2586 artists show 3957 paintings and 2000 drawings (R3,p58)
  • Bouguereau was chairman of the Jury (R3,p230)
  • Monet exhibited 1 work, another was rejected (R2,p293)
  • 1880/05/01 opening of the fifth ‘impressionist’ exposition, see


  • 1881/03 The administration of the Salon is giving to a groupe of artists called the Société des Artistes Français. The new rule is that every artist, who is once accepted, has the right to vote for the Jury. (R5,p123; R3,p58)
  • 1881/05/01 Manet received a second class medal (R5,p123)
  • 1881, End: Proust, a friend of Manet, had become minister of Art (R3,p229)
  • 1881/12/30 Manet appointed to Cheval Legion d’Honneur (R5,p124; R3,p235)
  • Durand-Ruel starts to buy on a regular bases works of some Impressionists
  • 1881/04/02 opening of the sixth ‘impressionist’ exposition, see


  • 1882/03/01 opening seventh ‘impressionist’ exposition, see


  • 1883/04/30 death of Edouard Manet (R5,p135)
  • 1883/05/05 death of Eva Gonzales (R5,p135)
  • October: foundation Les XX in Brussels, see



  • of the 38.515 submitted works 1218 are accepted (R5,p143)
  • the Salon is visited by 238.000 people (R5,p143)
  • August: Charles Henry (1859-1926) publishes ‘Introduction à une esthétique scientifique’


  • 1886/05 Salon des Réfusés (R2,p426)
  • 1886/02/20 Vincent van Gogh arrives in Paris (R5,p149)
  • 1886/05/15 opening of the eight ‘impressionist’ exposition, see
  • 1889/05-10: ‘Exposition International Universelle’ / Exposition Centennale de l’art Français; with Monet (3x) and related painters like Tissot (golden medal); (R3,p700; R22IV,p1017)



  • The first Salon de la Société National des Beaux-Arts was held.
  • ‘Exposition International Universelle’; with Monet (14x), Renoir (11x); (R22IV,p1018; R31,p316)



  • The first Salon d’Automne was held